Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prepositions and  Conjunctions Prof. Stephan Hughes
Day 1 <ul><li>Introduction and schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Initial definition and categorization of prepositions </li></ul>...
Day 2 <ul><li>Conjunctions from derivatives to grammaticalized forms </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions as lexical morphemes <...
Some prepositions Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II About  Behind  Concerning  Like  To  Above  ...
Prepositions (Bordet and Jamet, 2010) <ul><li>Discursive element –semantic value </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of meaning </li></...
What is said about them <ul><li>Connect a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectivize and ...
What is said about them 2 <ul><li>Prepositions and conjunctions are grammatical signs, so they are indicators of the gramm...
What can be inferred <ul><li>These two groups, particularly the first extract meaning from the nouns, verbs, or adjectives...
Just one case of “away” <ul><li>The problems won’t go  away  by themselves. You have to do something about them. </li></ul...
How prepositions are highlighted <ul><li>Defined morphologically, not syntactically </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by type: f...
Focus on Grammar Advanced <ul><li>Conjunctions as an appendix; nothing on prepositions </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa ...
Murphy’s Grammar in Use <ul><li>Organization of principal closed prepositions and possible verb combinations </li></ul>Ens...
Cassell’s Student’s  English Grammar  <ul><li>Reliable source with clear explanations </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e...
Setbacks <ul><li>Unclear boundaries between simple and complex; weak and strong, grammatical and lexical (call for a conti...
Why treat them as semantic units? <ul><li>Translatability, e.g.  I’m in! </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect equivalence...
The basis of translation <ul><li>Translation means finding an equivalence between “two sound complexes based on their comm...
The challenge <ul><li>Teaching prepositions calls for a presentation of concepts or notion, e.g. notions of space, time, m...
Classifications <ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Empty </li></ul><ul><li>Weak  </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Lexical derivant Grammatical morpheme No intermediate or trans...
Theory of grammaticalization (Kurylowicz, 1965) <ul><li>Affixes gain full-fledged status </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic litmu...
If prepositions float between the two categories Would a process called re-semanticization take place when grammaticalized...
How can we tell? <ul><li>Like phrasal verbs, grammaticalized prepositions can be separated whereas lexicalized ones cannot...
Contradictory? <ul><li>The usage of lexicalized items turns the same into a closed or grammatical class. </li></ul><ul><li...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand,  prepositions are dependent _ or _ relation _...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand,  prepositions are dependent  on  or  in  rela...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Linking devices Conjunctions Adverbs Relative pronouns Infinit...
Same sentence  Two sentences <ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>Despite </li></ul><ul><li>Even though </li></ul><ul><li>Mu...
Conjunctions  <ul><li>Syntactic (grammatical) elements used to link ideas in a particular way so as to portray contrast, c...
Questions to consider <ul><li>Does animacy affect word order in conjunctions? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any restrictions...
Adverbs vs Particles/Discourse markers <ul><li>A dverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g.  Sadly, the starting time had...
Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Comment Linking The point in tme Comment Place Indefinite time...
Position and Meaning of Adverbs
Sensibly <ul><li>He (A) discussed the design with her (B). </li></ul><ul><li>A – It was wise B – In a sensible way </li></ul>
Honestly <ul><li>(B)I don’t think the mayor is capable of answering the questions (A). (honestly) </li></ul><ul><li>A – In...
Obviously  <ul><li>He (B) realized she wasn’t (A) well. </li></ul><ul><li>A- Of course she wasn’t  B- Of course he did </l...
Kindly  <ul><li>The pilots (B) agreed to speak to the journalists (A). </li></ul><ul><li>A – In a kind way B – it was kind...
Discourse markers make a connection between <ul><li>What is being said </li></ul><ul><li>What is being said </li></ul><ul>...
Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Short answers:  </li></ul><ul><li>A: Should I revise for the test?  </li></u...
Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Comments:  </li></ul><ul><li>A: I thought the film was wonderful.  </li></ul...
Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Subsequent responses:  </li></ul><ul><li>A: I wish you’d lock the door when ...
Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>With more than one auxiliary:  </li></ul><ul><li>A: He could have been lying...
Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To give continuity to thoughts expressed  </li></ul><ul><li>A: Haven’t you done the washing-up...
Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To respond politely </li></ul><ul><li>A: Are you coming for a walk?  </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, ...
Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To comment:  </li></ul><ul><li>She’s less moody that she used to be.  </li></ul>Ensino de Líng...
Some useful resources <ul><li>Cassell's Students' English Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Murp...
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  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prof. Stephan Hughes
  • Prof. Stephan Hughes Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Gramatica ii stephan preposições e conjunções

    1. 1. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prepositions and Conjunctions Prof. Stephan Hughes
    2. 2. Day 1 <ul><li>Introduction and schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Initial definition and categorization of prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>How prepositions are presented in teaching materials </li></ul><ul><li>A semantic description of the preposition </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical or Grammatical morpheme? </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    3. 3. Day 2 <ul><li>Conjunctions from derivatives to grammaticalized forms </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions as lexical morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Linkers, linking words, connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Units of cohesion and coherence – sentence, paragraph and text level </li></ul><ul><li>Related processes: ellipsis, empty infinitives </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    4. 4. Some prepositions Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II About Behind Concerning Like To Above Below Despite Near Toward Across Beneath Down Of Under After Beside During Off Underneath Against Besides Except On Until Along Between For Over Unto Among Beyond From Past Up Around But (except) In Since Upon At Inside Through With Within
    5. 5. Prepositions (Bordet and Jamet, 2010) <ul><li>Discursive element –semantic value </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Void of syntactic function </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive semantic unit </li></ul><ul><li>Functional element – syntactic value </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical sign </li></ul><ul><li>Void of semantic autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Primal grammaticalized unit </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    6. 6. What is said about them <ul><li>Connect a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectivize and adverbialize a word: one of the boys, enter through the window </li></ul><ul><li>Are spatially or figuratively derived from physical notions of space </li></ul><ul><li>Act as other parts of speech , i.e. noun or verb: down the sandwich with a glass of milk </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    7. 7. What is said about them 2 <ul><li>Prepositions and conjunctions are grammatical signs, so they are indicators of the grammatical and supralexical meanings of the words in the structure in which they appear. “ (Zugun, 2003) </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    8. 8. What can be inferred <ul><li>These two groups, particularly the first extract meaning from the nouns, verbs, or adjectives or adverbs that accompany them. </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of phrasal verbs, not only do particles change the meaning of the original verb, but also transmit the meaning by themselves, leaving the verb with the job of modifying the action </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    9. 9. Just one case of “away” <ul><li>The problems won’t go away by themselves. You have to do something about them. </li></ul><ul><li>If only we could just wish our problems away . </li></ul><ul><li>I feel as if I have washed my fears away after that yoga session. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people believe they can will the troubles away with positive thinking. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    10. 10. How prepositions are highlighted <ul><li>Defined morphologically, not syntactically </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by type: from most common to most complex </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed as having meaning, even when temporal or physical information is provided </li></ul><ul><li>Categorized within a larger umbrella group known as particles </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    11. 11. Focus on Grammar Advanced <ul><li>Conjunctions as an appendix; nothing on prepositions </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    12. 12. Murphy’s Grammar in Use <ul><li>Organization of principal closed prepositions and possible verb combinations </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    13. 13. Cassell’s Student’s English Grammar <ul><li>Reliable source with clear explanations </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    14. 14. Setbacks <ul><li>Unclear boundaries between simple and complex; weak and strong, grammatical and lexical (call for a continuum) </li></ul><ul><li>Dual identity: prepositions » adverbs, e.g. out, about, like, after, up. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar and discourse dependency </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    15. 15. Why treat them as semantic units? <ul><li>Translatability, e.g. I’m in! </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect equivalence, e.g. Are we on for tonight? </li></ul><ul><li>Teachability, e.g. He was up and about soon after the surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs, e.g. I whip my hair back and forth </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    16. 16. The basis of translation <ul><li>Translation means finding an equivalence between “two sound complexes based on their common link with the same notion”. (Copcaeg, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of units of meaning, we could refer to units of notion or concepts . The latter is universal and less subjective than the former. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    17. 17. The challenge <ul><li>Teaching prepositions calls for a presentation of concepts or notion, e.g. notions of space, time, manner and place and an analysis of how the speakers of that given language see these concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering prepositions seem to be an eternal thorn in language learners’ sides and thus a source of frustration for the learner in question. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    18. 18. Classifications <ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Empty </li></ul><ul><li>Weak </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Main </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Colorless </li></ul><ul><li>Fake </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Contentful </li></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Dark </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Colored </li></ul><ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    19. 19. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Lexical derivant Grammatical morpheme No intermediate or transitory stage
    20. 20. Theory of grammaticalization (Kurylowicz, 1965) <ul><li>Affixes gain full-fledged status </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic litmus test: the more prepositional, the more grammatical </li></ul><ul><li>closed class = advanced grammaticalization = desemanticization </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions/adverbs fluctuate from lexical to grammatical and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of compositional meaning – separate elements, one meanining </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    21. 21. If prepositions float between the two categories Would a process called re-semanticization take place when grammaticalized items assume new meanings, sometimes even redundant ? BETWEEN: BY- + TWEONUM (two people) Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    22. 22. How can we tell? <ul><li>Like phrasal verbs, grammaticalized prepositions can be separated whereas lexicalized ones cannot </li></ul><ul><li>The longer the preposition, the lesser the grammaticalization: compare instead of with yet </li></ul><ul><li>unstressed words due to phonological attrition or erosion, e.g. OF </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    23. 23. Contradictory? <ul><li>The usage of lexicalized items turns the same into a closed or grammatical class. </li></ul><ul><li>This group, in turn, achieves or portrays new meanings. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    24. 24. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand, prepositions are dependent _ or _ relation _ semantic continuity _ the lexical content _ the term they accompany, and _ the other hand _ the syntactic function they have In practice – grammaticalized or lexicalized ?
    25. 25. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand, prepositions are dependent on or in relation of semantic continuity with the lexical content of the term they accompany, and on the other hand, with the syntactic function they have In practice
    26. 26. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Linking devices Conjunctions Adverbs Relative pronouns Infinitives Auxiliaries Participles Discourse markers
    27. 27. Same sentence Two sentences <ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>Despite </li></ul><ul><li>Even though </li></ul><ul><li>Much as </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>All the same </li></ul><ul><li>Even so </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless </li></ul><ul><li>- On the other hand </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    28. 28. Conjunctions <ul><li>Syntactic (grammatical) elements used to link ideas in a particular way so as to portray contrast, coordination, explanation, concession etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements that link ideas beyond the scope of the noun or prepositional phrase, i.e. sentence, paragraph and whole text </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    29. 29. Questions to consider <ul><li>Does animacy affect word order in conjunctions? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any restrictions to relativization in English? </li></ul><ul><li>Are particles/discourse markers a lexical class? (Zwicky, 1985) If so, why the two together? </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    30. 30. Adverbs vs Particles/Discourse markers <ul><li>A dverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g. Sadly, the starting time had to pushed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, I didecided to wait </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse markers can be created from adverbs and adverbials, e.g. Quite honestly, you need a better job. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    31. 31. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Comment Linking The point in tme Comment Place Indefinite time Comment Adverb position
    32. 32. Position and Meaning of Adverbs
    33. 33. Sensibly <ul><li>He (A) discussed the design with her (B). </li></ul><ul><li>A – It was wise B – In a sensible way </li></ul>
    34. 34. Honestly <ul><li>(B)I don’t think the mayor is capable of answering the questions (A). (honestly) </li></ul><ul><li>A – In a honest way B – I’m telling the truth </li></ul>
    35. 35. Obviously <ul><li>He (B) realized she wasn’t (A) well. </li></ul><ul><li>A- Of course she wasn’t B- Of course he did </li></ul>
    36. 36. Kindly <ul><li>The pilots (B) agreed to speak to the journalists (A). </li></ul><ul><li>A – In a kind way B – it was kind of them </li></ul>
    37. 37. Discourse markers make a connection between <ul><li>What is being said </li></ul><ul><li>What is being said </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s attitude </li></ul><ul><li>What was said </li></ul><ul><li>What is to be said </li></ul><ul><li>What was said </li></ul><ul><li>What theys saying </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    38. 38. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Short answers: </li></ul><ul><li>A: Should I revise for the test? </li></ul><ul><li>B: I think you should (revise for the test/do so) </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    39. 39. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Comments: </li></ul><ul><li>A: I thought the film was wonderful. </li></ul><ul><li>B: I didn’t (think so). </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    40. 40. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Subsequent responses: </li></ul><ul><li>A: I wish you’d lock the door when you come in. </li></ul><ul><li>B: But I did (lock the door)! </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    41. 41. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>With more than one auxiliary: </li></ul><ul><li>A: He could have been lying. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Yes, he could/he could have been </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    42. 42. Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To give continuity to thoughts expressed </li></ul><ul><li>A: Haven’t you done the washing-up? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, I’m just about to </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    43. 43. Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To respond politely </li></ul><ul><li>A: Are you coming for a walk? </li></ul><ul><li>B: No, I dont want to, thanks </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    44. 44. Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To comment: </li></ul><ul><li>She’s less moody that she used to be. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    45. 45. Some useful resources <ul><li>Cassell's Students' English Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy's English Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Practical English Usage </li></ul><ul><li>A Student's Grammar of the English Language </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
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