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Gramatica ii stephan preposições e conjunções
 

Gramatica ii stephan preposições e conjunções

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  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prof. Stephan Hughes
  • Prof. Stephan Hughes Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II

Gramatica ii stephan preposições e conjunções Gramatica ii stephan preposições e conjunções Presentation Transcript

  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prepositions and Conjunctions Prof. Stephan Hughes
  • Day 1
    • Introduction and schedule
    • Initial definition and categorization of prepositions
    • How prepositions are presented in teaching materials
    • A semantic description of the preposition
    • Lexical or Grammatical morpheme?
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Day 2
    • Conjunctions from derivatives to grammaticalized forms
    • Conjunctions as lexical morphemes
    • Linkers, linking words, connectors
    • Units of cohesion and coherence – sentence, paragraph and text level
    • Related processes: ellipsis, empty infinitives
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Some prepositions Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II About Behind Concerning Like To Above Below Despite Near Toward Across Beneath Down Of Under After Beside During Off Underneath Against Besides Except On Until Along Between For Over Unto Among Beyond From Past Up Around But (except) In Since Upon At Inside Through With Within
  • Prepositions (Bordet and Jamet, 2010)
    • Discursive element –semantic value
    • Unit of meaning
    • Void of syntactic function
    • Primitive semantic unit
    • Functional element – syntactic value
    • Grammatical sign
    • Void of semantic autonomy
    • Primal grammaticalized unit
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • What is said about them
    • Connect a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence
    • Adjectivize and adverbialize a word: one of the boys, enter through the window
    • Are spatially or figuratively derived from physical notions of space
    • Act as other parts of speech , i.e. noun or verb: down the sandwich with a glass of milk
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • What is said about them 2
    • Prepositions and conjunctions are grammatical signs, so they are indicators of the grammatical and supralexical meanings of the words in the structure in which they appear. “ (Zugun, 2003)
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • What can be inferred
    • These two groups, particularly the first extract meaning from the nouns, verbs, or adjectives or adverbs that accompany them.
    • In the case of phrasal verbs, not only do particles change the meaning of the original verb, but also transmit the meaning by themselves, leaving the verb with the job of modifying the action
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Just one case of “away”
    • The problems won’t go away by themselves. You have to do something about them.
    • If only we could just wish our problems away .
    • I feel as if I have washed my fears away after that yoga session.
    • Some people believe they can will the troubles away with positive thinking.
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • How prepositions are highlighted
    • Defined morphologically, not syntactically
    • Presented by type: from most common to most complex
    • Assumed as having meaning, even when temporal or physical information is provided
    • Categorized within a larger umbrella group known as particles
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Focus on Grammar Advanced
    • Conjunctions as an appendix; nothing on prepositions
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Murphy’s Grammar in Use
    • Organization of principal closed prepositions and possible verb combinations
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Cassell’s Student’s English Grammar
    • Reliable source with clear explanations
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Setbacks
    • Unclear boundaries between simple and complex; weak and strong, grammatical and lexical (call for a continuum)
    • Dual identity: prepositions » adverbs, e.g. out, about, like, after, up.
    • Grammar and discourse dependency
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Why treat them as semantic units?
    • Translatability, e.g. I’m in!
    • Direct and indirect equivalence, e.g. Are we on for tonight?
    • Teachability, e.g. He was up and about soon after the surgery.
    • Phrasal verbs, e.g. I whip my hair back and forth
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • The basis of translation
    • Translation means finding an equivalence between “two sound complexes based on their common link with the same notion”. (Copcaeg, 1998)
    • Instead of units of meaning, we could refer to units of notion or concepts . The latter is universal and less subjective than the former.
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • The challenge
    • Teaching prepositions calls for a presentation of concepts or notion, e.g. notions of space, time, manner and place and an analysis of how the speakers of that given language see these concepts.
    • Mastering prepositions seem to be an eternal thorn in language learners’ sides and thus a source of frustration for the learner in question.
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Classifications
    • Simple
    • Empty
    • Weak
    • Light
    • Main
    • Abstract
    • Colorless
    • Fake
    • Lexical
    • Complex
    • Contentful
    • Strong
    • Dark
    • Secondary
    • Concrete
    • Colored
    • True
    • Functional
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Lexical derivant Grammatical morpheme No intermediate or transitory stage
  • Theory of grammaticalization (Kurylowicz, 1965)
    • Affixes gain full-fledged status
    • Syntactic litmus test: the more prepositional, the more grammatical
    • closed class = advanced grammaticalization = desemanticization
    • Prepositions/adverbs fluctuate from lexical to grammatical and vice versa.
    • Loss of compositional meaning – separate elements, one meanining
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • If prepositions float between the two categories Would a process called re-semanticization take place when grammaticalized items assume new meanings, sometimes even redundant ? BETWEEN: BY- + TWEONUM (two people) Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • How can we tell?
    • Like phrasal verbs, grammaticalized prepositions can be separated whereas lexicalized ones cannot
    • The longer the preposition, the lesser the grammaticalization: compare instead of with yet
    • unstressed words due to phonological attrition or erosion, e.g. OF
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Contradictory?
    • The usage of lexicalized items turns the same into a closed or grammatical class.
    • This group, in turn, achieves or portrays new meanings.
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand, prepositions are dependent _ or _ relation _ semantic continuity _ the lexical content _ the term they accompany, and _ the other hand _ the syntactic function they have In practice – grammaticalized or lexicalized ?
  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand, prepositions are dependent on or in relation of semantic continuity with the lexical content of the term they accompany, and on the other hand, with the syntactic function they have In practice
  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Linking devices Conjunctions Adverbs Relative pronouns Infinitives Auxiliaries Participles Discourse markers
  • Same sentence Two sentences
    • Although
    • Despite
    • Even though
    • Much as
    • Whereas
    • All the same
    • Even so
    • However
    • Nevertheless
    • - On the other hand
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Conjunctions
    • Syntactic (grammatical) elements used to link ideas in a particular way so as to portray contrast, coordination, explanation, concession etc.
    • Elements that link ideas beyond the scope of the noun or prepositional phrase, i.e. sentence, paragraph and whole text
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Questions to consider
    • Does animacy affect word order in conjunctions?
    • Are there any restrictions to relativization in English?
    • Are particles/discourse markers a lexical class? (Zwicky, 1985) If so, why the two together?
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Adverbs vs Particles/Discourse markers
    • A dverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g. Sadly, the starting time had to pushed back.
    • Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, I didecided to wait
    • Discourse markers can be created from adverbs and adverbials, e.g. Quite honestly, you need a better job.
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Comment Linking The point in tme Comment Place Indefinite time Comment Adverb position
  • Position and Meaning of Adverbs
  • Sensibly
    • He (A) discussed the design with her (B).
    • A – It was wise B – In a sensible way
  • Honestly
    • (B)I don’t think the mayor is capable of answering the questions (A). (honestly)
    • A – In a honest way B – I’m telling the truth
  • Obviously
    • He (B) realized she wasn’t (A) well.
    • A- Of course she wasn’t B- Of course he did
  • Kindly
    • The pilots (B) agreed to speak to the journalists (A).
    • A – In a kind way B – it was kind of them
  • Discourse markers make a connection between
    • What is being said
    • What is being said
    • Speaker’s attitude
    • Speaker’s attitude
    • What was said
    • What is to be said
    • What was said
    • What theys saying
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition
    • Short answers:
    • A: Should I revise for the test?
    • B: I think you should (revise for the test/do so)
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition
    • Comments:
    • A: I thought the film was wonderful.
    • B: I didn’t (think so).
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition
    • Subsequent responses:
    • A: I wish you’d lock the door when you come in.
    • B: But I did (lock the door)!
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition
    • With more than one auxiliary:
    • A: He could have been lying.
    • B: Yes, he could/he could have been
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Reduced infinitives
    • To give continuity to thoughts expressed
    • A: Haven’t you done the washing-up?
    • B: No, I’m just about to
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Reduced infinitives
    • To respond politely
    • A: Are you coming for a walk?
    • B: No, I dont want to, thanks
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Reduced infinitives
    • To comment:
    • She’s less moody that she used to be.
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Some useful resources
    • Cassell's Students' English Grammar
    • Ways to Grammar
    • Murphy's English Grammar
    • Practical English Usage
    • A Student's Grammar of the English Language
    Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II