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Introduction tohydrology b

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This is the second part of the introduction to the hydrological cycle.

This is the second part of the introduction to the hydrological cycle.

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  • 1. A. Tack - Time and Timeslessnness Space Time Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 2. River Networks 2R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 3. River Networks 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 4. River Networks 4R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 5. River Networks 5R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 6. River Networks 6R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 7. http://www.meteotriveneto.it/static/ClimaVeneto.php R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13 Scales and patterns 7
  • 8. Scales and patterns meteotriveneto.it/static/ClimaVeneto.php 8 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 9. Scales and patterns 9 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 10. Scales and patterns F. Serafin, 2011 10 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 11. Scales and patterns F. Serafin, 2011 11 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 12. Scales and patterns F. Serafin, 2011 12 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 13. Scales and patterns F. Serafin, 2011 13 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 14. Function and Form 14R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 15. Function and Form 15R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 16. Hillslopes Sub-catchments 16 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 17. Smaller scales Pixel Scale 17 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 18. Smaller scales And even smaller 18 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 19. Mass and energy Bruno Munari - Ara Pacis Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 20. The water and energy budget Budgets First you chose a control volume Depending on the budget type,The budget represent you have also to account forthe variation of the given chemical transformations,quantity in the control including phase changes.volume , for a giventime interval.This is the algebraic sumof what enters minus whatleft the volume. 20R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 21. The water and energy budget The water budget Surface Vadose zone Water tables 21R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 22. The water and energy budget The water budget In the previous slides surface runoff, flow in soils, and groundawater fluxes were still missing. 22R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 23. The water and energy budget The water budget Eapotranspiration is also missing. This is the sum of evaporation from surface waters, evaporation from soils, and transpiration from plants (grass, bushes, trees). 23R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 24. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Groundwat er runoff 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 25. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Variation of the volume of water within the volume of Groundwat soil er runoff 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 26. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Variation of the volume of water within the volume of Groundwat soil Intensity of er runoff precipitation 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 27. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Evapotranspiration Variation of the volume of water within the volume of Groundwat soil Intensity of er runoff precipitation 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 28. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Surface runoff Evapotranspiration Variation of the volume of water within the volume of Groundwat soil Intensity of er runoff precipitation 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 29. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Surface runoff EvapotranspirationRunoff in Variation of the the soil volume of water within the volume of Groundwat soil Intensity of er runoff precipitation 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 30. The water and energy budget The water budget in a soil volume Surface runoff EvapotranspirationRunoff in Variation of the the soil volume of water within the volume of Groundwat soil Intensity of er runoff precipitation Time step 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 31. The water and energy budget The water budget The control volume does not need to be a simple form: a basins, for instance, is a typical control volume. 25R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 32. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples Control volume 26R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 33. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples 27R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 34. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples Qg 27R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 35. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples Qg 27R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 36. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples Qg 27R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 37. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples 28R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 38. The water and energy budgetIl bilancio di massa Altri esempi 29R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 39. The water and energy budgetIl bilancio di massa Altri esempi 29R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 40. The water and energy budgetIl bilancio di massa Altri esempi 29R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 41. The water and energy budgetIl bilancio di massa Altri esempi 29R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 42. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples 30R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 43. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples 30R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 44. The water and energy budget The water budget Examples 30R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 45. The water and energy budget The mass balance for a volume of atmosphere above the soil subsurface runoff Lateral advection of vapour and water S u r f a c e runoff 31R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 46. The water and energy budget The mass balance for a volume of atmosphere above the soil subsurface runoff Lateral Variation of water advection of and vapour in the vapour and layer of atmosphere water considered S u r f a c e runoff 31R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 47. The water and energy budget The mass balance for a volume of atmosphere above the soil Intensity of net evaporation subsurface runoff Lateral Variation of water advection of and vapour in the vapour and layer of atmosphere water considered S u r f a c e runoff 31R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 48. Il bilancio di massa ed energia The Energy budgetThe first group of term in theenergy budget is the radiationbudget.It includes short wave radiationfrom the Sun; and long waveradiation: from atmosphere andclouds to the atmosphere. 32 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 49. The water and energy budgetThe Energy budget Precipitation too enters in the budget, which, for instance, can contribute to snowmelt. Heat flux towards the Earth center depends on the depth of the control volume, and can be either positive or negative. 33R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 50. The water and energy budgetIl bilancio di energia Finally we have also evapotraspiration, and heat exchanges by convention from surface and atmosphere. 34R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 51. The water and energy budget Il bilancio di energia E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t 35R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 52. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Time interval 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 53. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Time interval Variation of energy stored in the soil 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 54. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Net short-wave radiation Time interval Variation of energy stored in the soil 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 55. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Net short-wave radiation Time interval Variation of energy Net long-wave stored in the soil radiation 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 56. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Net short-wave radiation Time interval Variation of energy Net long-wave stored in the soil radiation Release of heat by convection / conduction to the atmosphere 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 57. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Net short-wave Heat content of radiation evapotranspiration Time interval Variation of energy Net long-wave stored in the soil radiation Release of heat by convection / conduction to the atmosphere 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 58. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Net short-wave Heat content of radiation evapotranspiration Time interval Variation of energy Net long-wave stored in the soil radiation Release of heat Release of heat by convection / by convection / conduction to conduction to the atmosphere ground below 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  • 59. The water and energy budget The energy balance E = (Rsw n Rlw n H e ET n G) t Evapotranspiration Enthalpy of vaporisation (or latent heat of vaporisation) 37R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13