1 introduction to hydrology

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What I tells to my student introducing to them Hydrology

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1 introduction to hydrology

  1. 1. An Introduction to Hydrology Susan Derges - Water hydrological Cycle Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  2. 2. It begins with a storm … They were rolls, waves that finished in a puff: known noises, village things. Everything that we have here is animated, lively, maybe because the distances are short and fixed as in a theatre. The downpours were onto the courtyards here around, the thunder up here above the roofs; I could recognize by ear, a little further up, the place of the usual God that made storms when we were children, He too a village character. Here all is as if intensified, a matter of scale probably, of inner relationships. The shape of the noises and of these thoughts (which were, after all, the same thing) seemed to me for a moment truer than true, but it cannot be recreated with words. Luigi Meneghello - Incipit of  “Libera Nos A Malo” 2R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  3. 3. Introduction to Hydrology Objectives 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  4. 4. Introduction to Hydrology Objectives •To explain what hydrology is and what it deals with: 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  5. 5. Introduction to Hydrology Objectives •To explain what hydrology is and what it deals with: •The elements of the water cycle 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  6. 6. Introduction to Hydrology Objectives •To explain what hydrology is and what it deals with: •The elements of the water cycle •The spatial and temporal scales involved 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  7. 7. Introduction to Hydrology Objectives •To explain what hydrology is and what it deals with: •The elements of the water cycle •The spatial and temporal scales involved •The mass and energy balance at a global scale 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  8. 8. Introduction to Hydrology Objectives •To explain what hydrology is and what it deals with: •The elements of the water cycle •The spatial and temporal scales involved •The mass and energy balance at a global scale •The Budyko Curve 3R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  9. 9. Introduction to Hydrology The Water Cycle The water on Earth flows from the atmosphere to the ground. And then from the rivers to the sea, from where it returns to the atmosphere: Hydrology is the science that studies these flows, which make up the water cycle. 4R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  10. 10. Introduction to Hydrology The Water Cycle The flows from the atmosphere to the surface of the Earth are called precipitations. The water that reaches the ground can infiltrate and flow within the soil or it can run off on the surface (these are referred to as horizontal flows). At the same time, there is evaporation from the soil and water surfaces, and transpiration from plants and animals (in a word, evapotranspiration). Infiltration and evaporation constitute the vertical flows. 5R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  11. 11. Introduction to Hydrology From where the Earth water arrives ? During the first seconds after the Big Bang, hydrogen and Helium were created. Accordingly to the actual cosmogenetic theories oxygen was formed a little later. However, it is the third element more diffuse in the universe. Ball, P., 1999 6R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  12. 12. Introduction to Hydrology From where the Earth water arrives ? If you consider that Helium is very much not reactive could not not a real surprise that an element built on Hydrogen and Oxygen is abundant on the Earth. Ball, P., 1999 7R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  13. 13. How much ? Distribution of Water on Earth Saline groundwater & lakes Fresh Oceans 3% 2% 95% 8K. CaylorMonday, March 11, 13
  14. 14. How much ? Distribution of Water on Earth Ice & Snow Saline groundwater & lakes Groundwater Fresh Surface Water Oceans 3% 2% 30% 70% 95% 0.34% 9K. CaylorMonday, March 11, 13
  15. 15. How much ? Distribution of Water on Earth Ice & Snow Saline groundwater & lakes Groundwater Fresh Surface Water Oceans 3% 2% Surface water 30% is only 0.34% of all fresh 70% 95% water 0.34% 10K. CaylorMonday, March 11, 13
  16. 16. How much ? Distribution of Water on Earth Ice & Snow Soil Saline groundwater & lakes Groundwater Fresh Surface Water moisture Oceans 3% Ice 14% 2% & Snow 30% Lakes, 70% 95% Wetlands, & Rivers 86% 0.34% 11K. CaylorMonday, March 11, 13
  17. 17. How much ? Distribution of Water on Earth Ice & Snow Soil Saline groundwater & lakes Groundwater Fresh Surface Water moisture Oceans 3% Ice 14% 2% & Snow 30% Lakes, 70% 95% Wetlands, & Rivers 86% 0.34% Soil moisture is 0.001% of all water. Provides for all agricultural food production and sustains all terrestrial ecosystems 12K. CaylorMonday, March 11, 13
  18. 18. How much ? The Water Cycle Collocation Area covered Volume % % of fresh [106 km2 ] [106 km3 ] water Oceans 361.300 1.338 96.5 - Groundwater 134.8 23.4 1.7 - Fresh grundwater 10.530 0.76 30.1 Soil humidity 82 0.0165 0.001 0.05 Perennial ice and snow 16.2275 24.0641 1.74 68.7 Antarctic 13.980 21.600 1.56 61.7 Greenland 1.8024 2.340 0.17 6.68 Arctic islands 0.2261 0.0835 0.006 0.24 Mountain areas 0.224 0.0406 0.003 0.12 Permafrost 21 0.3 0.022 0.86 Water in lakes 2.0587 0.1764 0.013 - Fresh water in lakes 1.2364 0.091 0.007 0.26 Salt water in lakes 0.8223 0.0854 0.006 - Lagoons and swamps 2.682.6 0.01147 0.0002 0.006 Rivers 148.8 0.00212 0.0002 0.0006 Water in living beings 510 0.0012 0.0.0001 0.0003 Water in the atmosphere 510 0.0129 0.001 0.04 Water total 510 1385.98561 100 - Fresh water total 148.8 35.02921 2.53 100 Data from:Global Change in the Geosphere-Biosphere, NRC, 1986, Shiklomanov and Skolov (1983). You can see also: Oki et al., 2001; Shiklomanov, I. A., 2000; Vorosmarty et al., 2000; Hanasaki et al., 2006 13R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  19. 19. Introduction to Hydrology The Water Cycle sustains Life on Earth shapes the surface of the Earth regulates the climate The engine of the Water Cycle is composed of: solar radiation, which causes gradients in temperature, pressure, and density, and the phase changes of water in the atmosphere and within the soil; the force of gravity; surface tensions; and electrochemical forces. 14R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  20. 20. Hower ... Looking to our neighbors Venus Earth Mars No one has very much oxygen and water 15A. KleidonMonday, March 11, 13
  21. 21. However... Looking to our neighbors Venus Earth Mars 96.5% CO2 78 % N2 93.5% CO2 3.5% N2 31% O2 2.7% N2 16A. KleidonMonday, March 11, 13
  22. 22. Does life influences the Hydrological Cycle ? Is therefore the actual composition of atmpsphere due to the presence of life ? Figure 1 The effect of life on the Earth’s atmosphere. Lenton, T., 1998 a, Atmospheric compositions of Earth, Mars and Venus (excluding water vapour and noble gases). b, Estimated fluxes of gases at the Earth’s surface in teramoles (1012 moles) per year, with (pre-industrial) life and without life. 17A. KleidonMonday, March 11, 13
  23. 23. Does life influences the Hydrological Cycle ? Oxygen concentration Earth before present Holland, 2006 Time before present (Gyears) 18A. KleidonMonday, March 11, 13
  24. 24. Does life influences the Hydrological Cycle ? CO2 atmospheric concentration before present 19A. KleidonMonday, March 11, 13
  25. 25. Does life influences the Hydrological Cycle ? Therefore We can conjecture that, maybe, is also true the reverse (water maintains life) •but the hydrological cycle, se we see it, could also be the product of the presence of life on Earth 20R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  26. 26. Introduction to Hydrology The Water Cycle Figure from Horton, 1931 21R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  27. 27. Introduction to Hydrology The good old hydrological cycle Oki and Kanae, 2006 22R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  28. 28. RFWR A relevant aspect Is that just part of the whole water can be utilized by humans and ecosystems. This part is usually named •Renewable Freshwater resources (RFWR) Is there enough RFWR ? 23R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  29. 29. RFWR The good old hydrological cycle Oki and Kanae, 2006 24R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  30. 30. RFWR The good old hydrological cycle Oki and Kanae, 2006 25R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  31. 31. RFWR The good old hydrological cycle Oki and Kanae, 2006 La maggior parte della RFWR è costituita della portata dei fiumi 26R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  32. 32. RFWR The good old hydrological cycle Oki and Kanae, 2006 27R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  33. 33. RFWR Blue Water Green Water White Water Blue Water: surface water and groundwater Green Water: soil water, available for plants White Water: just atmospheric water 28R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  34. 34. RFWR Aeschbach-Hertig and Gleeson, 2012 29R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  35. 35. Introduction to Hydrology Compartment Volume % Source Incoming Emission Outgoing Flow Flow Oceans 1338 96.51 P 4581 E 5051 3242 3612 3853 4243 R 471 372 403 Atmosphere 0.013 0.001 ET 5771 P 5771 from the landmasses 721 622 992 713 1113 from the oceans 5051 3612 3242 4243 3853 Landmasses 48 3.46 P 1191 ET 721 992 622 1113 712 R 471 372 403Global water flows (1-Shiklomanov and Sokolov,1983 ; 2- Peixoto e Kettani, 1973 3- Baumgartner e Reichel, 1975.The volumes are in millions of km cubed and the flows are in millions of km cubed per year. P = Precipitations; R =Surface runoff; E =evaporation ; ET = evapotranspiration 30 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  36. 36. Extreme Events Looking to the mean hydrological budgets is not just the only wat Extreme events matter 31R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  37. 37. Spatial and Temporal ScalesGentine, 2012 32R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  38. 38. Spatial and Temporal Scales Cycles ? Peixoto-Oort, 1992; Mitchell, 1974 33R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  39. 39. Il mezzo è il messaggio Burri-Untitled 1952 Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  40. 40. The medium is the message The water cycle is not only defined by the presence of water and its flows, but also by the media on which, or through which, these water flows take place: •the atmosphere •vegetation •the ground surface •soils •aquifers 35R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  41. 41. The medium is the message The atnospheric boundary Layer 36R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  42. 42. The medium is the message Vegetation 37R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  43. 43. The medium is the message The terrain surface 38R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  44. 44. The medium is the message Soils O horizon O horizon A horizon real soil A horizon B horizon layer real soil layer B horizon C horizon C horizon unconsolidated rock Bedrock BedRock 39R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  45. 45. The medium is the message Below the soils 40R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  46. 46. The medium is the message Aquifers http://www.wec.ufl.edu/extension/gc/harmony/images/aquifer.gif 41R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  47. 47. Hydrological information a classical view La Scuola di Atene, Raffaello Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  48. 48. The global hydrological cycle Distribution of Mean Annual Precipitation Da Dingman, 1994 43 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  49. 49. The global hydrological cycle Precipitation Patterns from Dingman, 1994 44 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  50. 50. The global hydrological cycle Areas Seasonally Covered by Snowfrom Dingman, 1994 45 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  51. 51. The global hydrological cycle The Largest Rivers on Earth from Dingman, 1994 46 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  52. 52. The global hydrological cycle the thousand longest rivers on earthFrom the work "the thousand rivers” (i mille fiumi) by Arrigo Boetti and Anna-marie Sauzeau-Boetticlassification by order of magnitude is the most common method for classifying information relative to a certain category, in the case of rivers, size can beunderstood to the power of one, two, or three, that is, it can be expressed in km, km2, or m3 (length, catchment area, or discharge), the length criterion is the mostarbitrary and naive but still the most widespread, and yet it is impossible to measure the length of a river for the thousand and more perplexities that its fluid naturebrings up (because of its meanders and its passage through lakes, because of its ramifications around islands or its movements in the delta areas, because ofman’s intervention along its course, because of the elusive boundaries between fresh water and salt water...) many rivers have never been measured becausetheir banks and waters are inaccessible, even the water spirits sympathise at times with the flora and the fauna in order to keep men away, as a consequencesome rivers flow without name, unnamed because of their untouched nature, or unnamable because of human aversion (some months ago a pilot flying low overthe brazilian forest discovered a “new” tributary of the amazon river). other rivers cannot be measured, instead, because they have a name, a casual name givento them by men (a single name along its entire course when the river, navigable, becomes means of human communication; different names when the river,formidable, visits isolated human groups); now the entity of a river can be established either with reference to its name (trail of the human adventure), or withreference to its hydrographic integrity (the adventure of the water from the remotest source point to the sea, independently of the names assigned to the variousstretches), the problem is that the two adventures rarely coincide, usually the adventure of the explorer is against the current, starting from the sea; the adventureof the water, on the other hand, finishes there, the explorer going upstream must play heads or tails at every fork, because upstream of every confluenceeverything rarefies: the water, sometimes the air, but always one’s certainty, while the river that descends towards the sea gradually condenses its waters and thecertainty of its inevitable path, who can say whether it is better to follow man or the water? the water, say the modern geographers, objective and humble, and sothe begin to recompose the identity of the rivers, an example: the mississippi of new orleans is not the extension of the mississippi that rises from lake itasca inminnesota, as they teach at school, but of a stream that rises in western montana with the name jefferson red rock and then becomes the mississippi-missouri in stlouis, the number of kilometres upstream is greater on the missouri side, but in fact this “scientific” method is applied only to the large and prestigious rivers, thoselikely to compete for records of length, the methodological rethinking is not wasted on minor rivers (less than 800km) which continue to be called, and measured,only according to their given name, even if, where there are two source course (with two other given names), the longer of the two could be rightly included in themain course, the current classification reflects this double standard, this follows the laws of water and the laws of men, because that is how the relevantinformation is given, in short, it reflects the biased game of information rather than the fluid life of water, this classification was began in 1970 and ended in 1973,some data were transcribed from famous publications, numerous data were elaborated from material supplied non-european geographic institution, governments,universities, private research centres, and individual accademics from all over the world, this convergence of documentation constitutes the the substance and themeaning of the work, the innumerable asterisks contained in these thousand record cards pose innumerable doubts and contrast with the rigid classificationmethod, the partialness of the existing information, the linguistic problems associated with their identity, and the irremediably elusive nature of water all mean thatthis classification, like all those that proceeded it or that will follow, will always be provisional and illusionaryAnne-marie Sauzeau-Boetti(TN the text is published without capital letters) 47 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  53. 53. Modern Hydrological Information Luigi Ghirri, Infinito, 1974 Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  54. 54. The global hydrological cycle http://www-cger.nies.go.jp/grid-e/gridtxt/prec_geo.html 49 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  55. 55. http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/#Global%20Water %20Balance R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13 The global hydrological cycle 50
  56. 56. http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/#Global%20Water %20Balance R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13 The global hydrological cycle 51
  57. 57. http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/#Global%20Water %20Balance R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13 The global hydrological cycle 52
  58. 58. http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/#Global%20Water %20Balance R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13 The global hydrological cycle 53
  59. 59. The global hydrological cycle Is it possible to close the terrestrial water budget with satellite measures ? T O P E X / TRMM/CMORPH CERES/MODIS/ P O SE ID O N/ GRACE AIRS Land PERSIAN, GPM J A S O N , Flux SWOT Next future (2016) Now it is not. However in the future ..... Wood et al., Closing the Terrestrial water Budget from satellite Remote sensing, GRL, 2009 54Marco ManciniMonday, March 11, 13
  60. 60. The global hydrological cycle Global Digital Terrain Data The elevation data resulting from the SRTM are probably the best known global dataset Rabus et al. 2003.http://www,analist.net The area covered by the mission goes from 60° North to 58° South. The data was obtained with an X-band radar (NASA and MIL, that covers 100% of the area) and by a C-band radar (DLR and ASI) that covers 40%. 55 T. HenglMonday, March 11, 13
  61. 61. The global hydrological cycle Global Digital Terrain Data The DLR and ASI data, nonpublic, would be available with a resolution of about 30m (1 arcsec). A model of the Earth’s surface, ETOPO1 Global Relief Model (which includes bathymetry data) is available with a resolution of 1km and can behttp://www,analist.net downloaded from NOAAs National Geophysical Data Center (Amante and Eakins, 2008). Global DEM’s, at various resolutions, from 1km to 2.5, 5, and 10 arcminutes, are available at the worldclim website. The SRTM DEM at 90m resolution can be obtained from CGIAR - Consortium for Spatial Information. In June 2009 a DEM based on the ASTER satellite (GDEM) survey with a 30m resolution was produced. The GDEM was obtained by stereoscopic correlation of 1.3 million optical ASTER images, that cover about 98% of the Earth’s surface. The images can be downloaded from NASAs EOS data archive or from Japans Ground Data System. 56 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  62. 62. The global hydrological cycle Global Water ResourcesThe most thorough global inventory of water resources is the Global Lakes andWetlands Database (GLWD), which includes lakes, catchment areas, rivers and variouswetlands. The map is in raster format with pixels at 30-arcsec resolution (Lehner andDoll, 2004). Vector images of the Earth’s catchments and similar vector data can beobtained from RS GIS Unit of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI).http://www,analist.net 57 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  63. 63. The global hydrological cycle Climatic Maps WorldClim.org provides global maps of some 18 bioclimatic parameters derived (with thin plate smoothing splines) using >15,000 weather stations (Hijmans et al., 2005). The climatic parameters include: mean, minimum and maximum temperatures, monthly precipitation and bioclimatic variables. All at ground resolution of 1 km.http://www,analist.net Mean annual temperature 58 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  64. 64. The global hydrological cycle Climatic Mapshttp://www,analist.net Annual precipitations 59 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  65. 65. The global hydrological cycle Climatic Mapshttp://www,analist.net Coefficient of variation of rainfall 60 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  66. 66. The global hydrological cycle Geological Maps Soil maps play an elemental role in Hydrology and Agrometeorology. The only truly global soil map is that available from USGS Global Soil Regions with a 60-arcsec resolution (FAO-UNESCO, 2005). Geological maps have now been integrated by the OneGeology project. The USDA Soil Survey Division also distributes global maps of wetland areas (which include: upland, lowland, organic, permafrost and salt affected wetlands). The ISRIC maintains a global database of soil profiles comprising over 12,000 profiles with analytic descriptions and the parameters for 50 soil types (Batjes,http://www,analist.net 2008). 61 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  67. 67. The global hydrological cycle Geological Mapshttp://www,analist.net 62 T. Hengl Monday, March 11, 13
  68. 68. The global hydrological cycle Precipitations all over the Earth in real-time http://sharaku.eorc.jaxa.jp/GSMaP/index.htm 63 R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  69. 69. Other data Other data on the web http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/2012/11/repertorio-nazionale-dei-dati.html http://abouthydrology.blogspot.it/2012/08/free-cartographic-italian-data-on-web.html http://nil-pipraen.blogspot.it/2012/04/hydrological-modeling.html http://www.bafg.de/GRDC/EN/Home/homepage__node.html http://www.nwl.ac.uk/ih/devel/wmo/hhcdbs.html 64R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  70. 70. The Global Energy Balance Jackson Pollock Riccardo RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  71. 71. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention OCEAN-CONTINENTS 66R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  72. 72. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention OCEAN-CONTINENTS 67R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  73. 73. The global energy budget Reflected solar radiation Of the net short-wave radiation Infrared radiation from Earth Initial solar radiation SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention OCEAN-CONTINENTS 67R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  74. 74. The global energy budget Reflected solar radiation Of the net short-wave radiation Infrared radiation from Earth Initial solar radiation SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 on average (spatially heat Net emission of infrared Heat transfer by Latent over the (photosintetic efficiency) radiation entire (conduction and) the by surface of transferred convention Earth and temporally over an entire year) convention only 50 % makes it to the OCEAN-CONTINENTS ground 67R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  75. 75. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention 19 + 1 + 30 + 50 = 100 OCEAN-CONTINENTS (16+3) 68R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  76. 76. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE 19 % is absorbed by the Reflected by atmosphere. modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention 19 + 1 + 30 + 50 = 100 OCEAN-CONTINENTS (16+3) 68R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  77. 77. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE 19 % is absorbed by the Reflected by atmosphere. modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from A small percentage (1%) is used CO , H 0 2 2 Reflected by clouds by plants - small percentage Absorbed by CO2, O3, but substantially important! dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention 19 + 1 + 30 + 50 = 100 OCEAN-CONTINENTS (16+3) 68R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  78. 78. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE 19 % is absorbed by the Reflected by atmosphere. modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from A small percentage (1%) is used CO , H 0 2 2 Reflected by clouds by plants - small percentage Absorbed by CO2, O3, but substantially important! dust 30% ofby CO , H 0 radiation is, on Absorbed the 2 2 Absorbed by clouds average, reflected back towards Absorbed by Reflected by Earth’s surface space (and makes up the albedo Net emission of infrared Earth). of the vegetation <0.2 Heat transfer by Latent heat (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention 19 + 1 + 30 + 50 = 100 OCEAN-CONTINENTS (16+3) 68R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  79. 79. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds Reflected by Absorbed by Earth’s surface vegetation Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by convention OCEAN-CONTINENTS 69R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  80. 80. The global energy budget Initial solar radiation Reflected solar radiation Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds So the 50% that the ground Reflected by receives is returned to spacesurface Absorbed by vegetation Earth’s (if Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic n e r g y the e balance were (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by stationary: in fact climate convention change is all due to the imbalance). OCEAN-CONTINENTS 69R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  81. 81. The global energy budget To the 50% that reaches the ground,Initial solar the 19% that was radiation add radiation Reflected solar Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE absorbed by the atmosphere to make up the total outgoing infrared radiation (69%). ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air Net emission from CO2, H20 Reflected by clouds Absorbed by CO2, O3, dust Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds So the 50% that the ground Reflected by receives is returned to spacesurface Absorbed by vegetation Earth’s (if Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic n e r g y the e balance were (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by stationary: in fact climate convention change is all due to the imbalance). OCEAN-CONTINENTS 69R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  82. 82. The global energy budget To the 50% that reaches the ground,Initial solar the 19% that was radiation add radiation Reflected solar Infrared radiation from Earth SPACE absorbed by the atmosphere to make up the total outgoing infrared radiation (69%). ATMOSPHERE Reflected by modified after Wallace and Hobbs, 1977 air The 50% from the ground can be divided into three parts: the Net emission from CO2, H20 r a d i a t i v e e m i s s i o n Reflectedtby e of h clouds surfacebyof , O , Earth (20%), the Absorbed CO the 2 3 dust evapotranspiration flux (23%), and heat loss by convection (7%). Absorbed by CO2, H20 Absorbed by clouds So the 50% that the ground Reflected by receives is returned to spacesurface Absorbed by vegetation Earth’s (if Heat transfer by Latent heat Net emission of infrared (photosintetic n e r g y the e balance were (conduction and) transferred radiation efficiency) convention by stationary: in fact climate convention change is all due to the imbalance). OCEAN-CONTINENTS 69R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  83. 83. The global enrgy budget http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/95206e.html 70R. RigonMonday, March 11, 13
  84. 84. Lin, B., P. W. Stackhouse Jr., P. Minnis, B. A. Wielicki, Y. Hu, W. Sun, T.- F. Fan, and L. M. Hinkelman (2008), Assessment of global annual atmospheric energy balance from satellite observations, J. Geophys. R. Rigon Res., 113, D16114, doi:10.1029/2008JD009869Monday, March 11, 13 The global enrgy budget Mean Annual Balance of the Oceans 71

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