Organizational Effectiveness Reference:1. Human Resource Management by Ashwathappa2. Leadership Enhancing the Lessons of Experience by Richard L Hughes, Robert C Ginnett, Gordon J Curphy3. Managerial Behaviour and Effectiveness by E. Ananda Raja/N R V Prabhu/ P Lameshwara Rao
Concept of Organizational Effectiveness (Ref. book 1)• Efficiency Vs Effectiveness Efficiency: Represents the Cost/Benefit rate incurred in the pursuit of these goals. Effectiveness: The Degree in which operative goals have been attained
Approaches to Measure Effectiveness• Goal Approach• Behavioural Approach• System Resource Approach• Strategic constituencies Approach
Criteria For Organisational EffectivenessCausal Factors Intervening End-Result Criteria Criteria • Strategy • Product • Growth Rate • Technology Related • Profitability • People • Customer • Shareholder • Structure Related Value • People • Social Related Performance
Managerial Effectiveness • The Managerial GridHigh 1,9 9,9 Concern for people 5,5 1,1 9,1 Low Concern for Production High
The Person• Qualities include • Qualities include Ability to sustain defeat Alert Ambitious Assertive Capable of good judgment Confident Competitive Creative Decisive Dedicated Defensive Dynamism Emotional stability Energetic Extrovert Fear of failure Group oriented Honest Intelligent Mentally strong Optimistic Pragmatic Predictable Realistic Self-controlled Tolerant
The PersonMost Descriptive of Successful Key Least Decretive of Successful Key Executive Executive Decisive Amiable Aggressive Conforming Self-Strarting Neat Productive Reserved Well-informed Agreeable Determined Conservative Energetic Kindly Creative Mannerly Intelligent Cheerful Responsible Formal Enterprising Courteous Clear Thinking Modest
The Process• Answers how managers manage successfully• Manage work instead of people• Plan and organize effectively• Set goals realistically• Decisions based on consensus but accept responsibility• Delegate frequently and effectively• Rely on others to help solve problems• Communicate precisely• Cooperate with others• Display consistent and dependable behavior• Win with grace• Express hostility tactfully
The ProductThese reflect on outcome of effective managing and include:• Organizational efficiency• High productivity• Profit maximization• Organizational stability• Employee welfare• Social welfare
Effectiveness Through Adaptive Coping Cycle• Stages of Adaptive-Coping Cycle – Sensing of Change – Importing the Relevant Information – Changing Conversion Process – Stabilizing Internal Changes – Exporting New Outputs – Obtaining Feedback
Developmental Plan (Bridging Gaps)• Conducting a GAPS Analysis• Identifying and Prooritizing development Needs• Bridging the Gaps: Building a development Plan• Reflecting on Learning: Modifying development Plans• Transferring Learning to New Environment
Developmental Plan (Bridging Gaps) • Recall : Motivation by Porter and Lawer Perceived Value Abilities Equitable Reward Rewards Intrisic Reward Satisfaction Effort Performance ExtrinsicPerceived Role Reward Effort- Reward PerceptionProbablity
Developmental Plan (Ref. Book 2) (Bridging Gaps) Goals: Abilities:Where do you Want to Go? What can You Do Now?Step 1: Career Objectives Step 2: What strengths do you have for your career Objectives? Career strategies Step-3: What development Needs will you have to overcome? Standards: Perceptions:What does your boss or the Organisation How do others See You?Expect? Step 4: 360 –Degree and Performance Review Results, and Feedback from others:Step 5: Expectations Boss Peers Direct Reports
Developmental Plan (Bridging Gaps)• Bridging The GAPS: Building a Development Plan Step 1: Career and Development Objectives Step 2: Criteria for Success Step 3: Action Steps Step 4: Whom to Involve and Reassess dates Step 5: Stretch Assignment Step 6: Resources Step 7: Reflect with a Partner
Measuring Managerial Effectiveness• Common Measures – Superiors’ Effectiveness and Performance Ratings – Subordinates’ Ratings of Satisfaction, Organizational Climate, Morale, Motivation, and Leadership Effectiveness – Unit Performance Indices
Measuring Managerial Effectiveness Measure Advantages Disadvantages •Superiors’ Biases •Raters unware of true Performance Superiors’ Ratings Frequently Used •Raters’ unwillingness to provide tough feedback •Unmotivated subordinators •Subject of Leaders’ Behaviours Subordinates’ Ratings •May be no links between ratings •Multiple Raters and unit performance Results due to factors beyondUnit Performance Indices Actual Results leaders’ control
Current Industrial and Government Practices in The Management of Managerial Effectiveness (Ref. Book 3)• Sets up procedures to ensure high quality of work• Arrange for training and executive development programmes• Involvement on career development programme of its employees• Monitor the quality of work through performance appraisal• Verification of information through feedback• Checking the accuracy of one’s own and others’ work• Developing and using systems to organize and keep track of information or work progress• Carefully preparing for meetings and presentations• Organizing information or materials for others• Careful reviews
Current Industrial and Government Practices in The Management of Managerial Effectiveness• Developing Initiative• Encouraging Self-Management Approach• Facilitating Appropriate Communication
Current Industrial and Government Practices in The Management of Managerial Effectiveness• Developing Initiative – Drive – Energy – Self-Starter
Current Industrial and Government Practices in The Management of Managerial Effectiveness• Encouraging Self-Management Approach – Team Player – Leader – Develops Subordinates – Disciplined
Current Industrial and Government Practices in The Management of Managerial Effectiveness• Facilitating Appropriate Communication – Articulate – Persuasive – Supportive – Confident
Current Industrial and Government Practices in The Management of Managerial Effectiveness• The Skills and Competencies required to Perform Better – Ability to Plan – Organize – Execute – Meet deadlines
Managerial Effectiveness Development Adoption of Skills By Managers for Organizational Interventions Effective Management of Corporate• OD Values • Problem Solving • Analytical Thinking – Respect for Employees • Forward Thinking – Trust and Support • Conceptual Thinking – Power Equalization • Strategic Thinking – Confrontation • Technical Expertise • Entrepreneurial Orientation – Participation • Fostering Innovation• OD Intervention Techniques • Result Orientation – Sensitivity Training • Decisiveness – Survey Feedback • Self-Confidence • Stress Management – Process Consultation • Personality Credibility – Team Building • Flexibility – Inter-Group development
Manager as a Optimizer• According to campbell, in his behavioral approach says , effective manager is said to be an optimizer in utilizing all the available and potential resources …..
Manager as a Optimizer• Effective manager focuses on what he is doing and effectively deals with how we are doing . As it is a known fact that efficiency is doing the task correctly and refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs .
Manager as a Optimizer• Effective managers do differently from their less-effective counterparts.• Have high concern for people and productivity• Effective managers are able to communicate• Spend Time in Managing• Using General Style• Allow Employees to Influence them• Have influence upward• Minimize Status Differences
Manager as a OptimizerSpend Time Managing The effective manager spend most of their time manager . That is they spend most of their time identifying opportunity for improvement, locating problems, training subordinates , developing contacts with other in the organization, working through inter- unit differences .
Manager as a OptimizerThe actions he is to take will arise from the answers a manager gives to these questions. What is my potential contribution? What are my objectives? What does it take to be effective here? What needs changing? What is organization’s philosophy What can I do now?
Manager as a OptimizerThe actions he is to take will arise from the answers a manager gives to these questions. What is my potential contribution? How can I improve my superior ‘s effectiveness ? What are my objectives? How can I improve my coworker’s What does it take to be effective here? effectiveness ? What needs changing? How can I improve my subordinate What is organization’s philosophy ‘s effectiveness ? What can I do now? How can I change the technology ? What is my future ? What will the future demand ?
Manager as a OptimizerEffective manager is excepted to work as an optimizer by focusing onlow waste and high goal attainment