Federal Republic of Nigeria
Federal constitutional Republic
The country is located in West Africa and
shares land borders with the Republic
of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in
the east, and Niger in the north.
Official language: English
República de Honduras
Central constitutional Republic
Capital,Tegucigalpa (and largest city)
The country is bordered to the west
by Guatemala, to the southwest by El
Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to
the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of
Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of
Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea.
Official language: Spanish
Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution,
and prebendalism have played a visible role in Nigerian
politics both prior and subsequent to independence in
Nigeria is a Federal Republic modeled after the United
States, with executive power exercised by
the president and with overtones of the Westminster
System model in the composition and management of the
upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature.The
current president of Nigeria is Goodluck Jonathan, who
succeeded to the office in 2010.The president presides as
both Head of State and head of the national executive and
is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year
There are four distinct systems of law in Nigeria:
English law which is derived from its colonial past with Britain;
Common law, a development of its post colonial independence;
Customary law which is derived from indigenous traditional
norms and practice, including the dispute resolution meetings of
pre-colonialYorubaland secret societies and the Èkpè and
Okónkò of Igboland and Ibibioland;
Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Muslim north of the
country. It is an Islamic legal system which had been used long
before the colonial administration in Nigeria but recently
politicised and spearheaded in Zamfara in late 1999 and eleven
other states followed suit.These states
are Kano, Katsina, Niger, Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Gombe, Sokoto
Jigawa,Yobe, and Kebbi.
In the last elections,Honduras had nine registered
political parties: National Party (Partido Nacional de
Honduras: PNH); Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de
Honduras: PLH); Social Democrats (Partido
Innovación y Unidad-Social Demócrata: PINU-SD),
Social Christians (Partido Demócrata-Cristiano de
Honduras: DCH); and Democratic Unification
(Partido Unificación Democrática, PAC, Libre, etc.
UD). PNH and PLH have ruled the country for
Government ministries are often incapable of
carrying out their mandate due to budgetary
Honduran 2009 crisis
The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis is an
ongoing constitutional crisis. President Manuel Zelaya had
attempted to hold a "non-binding referendum" on the 28th
of June on the desire of Hondurans to have a fourth ballot
box in the upcoming November elections, which would
then ask if the Honduran people wished to form a
ConstitutionalAssembly in the term of the newly elected
president.The Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling
that had found a prior referendum based on the same issue
unconstitutional and had prohibited it.The Supreme Court
had not made any determination of the final, referendum,
having instead made the legal claim that any attempt by
Zelaya to poll on any matter, in any way, to be.
Nigeria is classified as an emerging market, and is
rapidly approaching middle income status, with its
abundant supply of resources, well-developed
financial, legal, communications, transport sectors
and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange),
which is the second largest in Africa.
During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria
accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance
major infrastructural investments.With the fall of oil
prices during the 1980s oil glut Nigeria struggled to
keep up with its loan payments and eventually
defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting
repayment to the interest portion of the loans.
The economy has continued to grow slowly, but
the distribution of wealth remains very polarized
with average wages remaining low. Economic
growth in the last few years has averaged 7% per
year, but 50%, approximately 3.7 million, of the
population still remains below the poverty line.
Honduras was declared one of the Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries by theWorld Bank and
the International Monetary Fund which made it
eligible for debt relief in 2005.
About 250 ethnic groups
Major ethnic groups: Hausa,Yoruba, and Igbo
Religion: Majority are Roman Catholics
Mestizo Amerindian Black White
Hondurans are often referred to as Catracho in
Spanish.The word was coined by Nicaraguans and
derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran
General Florencio Xatruch, who, in 1857, led
Honduran armed forces against an attempted
invasion by North American adventurerWilliam
Walker.The nickname is considered complimentary,
not derogatory.The main language is Spanish,
spoken by 94% as first language. Minority languages
are spoken by less than 4%.These are Amerindian
languages such as Garifuna, Miskito,
and Pech; Honduras Sign Language; and English on
the Bay Islands off the coast.
Legends and fairy tales are paramount within
the Honduras culture; Lluvia de Peces (Fish
Rain) is an example of this.The legend of
El Cadejo and La Ciguanaba (La Sucia) are
Nigeria is home to a variety of religions which
tend to vary regionally.This situation
accentuates regional and ethnic distinctions
and has often been seen as a source of
sectarian conflict amongst the
population.The largest religions of Nigeria
are Islam and Christianity, including few
followers of indigenous religions.
Nigeria´s Foreign policy
Nigeria's foreign policy was soon tested in the 1970s after the
country emerged united from its own civil war and quickly
committed itself to the liberation struggles going on in the
Southern Africa sub-region.Though Nigeria never sent an
expeditionary force in that struggle, it offered more than rhetoric
to the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed
tough line with regard to the racist regime and their incursions in
southern Africa, in addition to expediting large sums to aid anti-
colonial struggles. Nigeria was also a founding member of
the Organization for African Unity (now the African Union), and
has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole.
Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in
West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer
for ECOWAS and ECOMOG, economic and military organizations
Nigeria´s Foreign Policy
Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal
Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it
was temporarily expelled in 1995 under the Abacha regime.
Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil
industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership
in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting
Countries OPEC which it joined in July, 1971. Its status as a
major petroleum producer figures prominently in its
sometimes difficult international relations with
both developed countries, notably the United States and
more recently China and developing countries, notably
Ghana, Jamaica, and Kenya.
Despite its vast government revenue from
the mining of petroleum, Nigeria is faced by a
number of societal issues due primarily to a
history of inefficiency in its governance.
High dependency ratio
Petroleum revenues are controlled by
Pervasive corruption has been a problem ever
since the late colonial era.
Social gap between the rich and the poor.
Access to education is limited.
Culture is deeply divided by ethnicity and
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