Museum Experience as defined by John Falk & Lynn Dierking 2013
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  • Misschien is leren wel het continue herbevestigen van je eigen ik (in alle groei).
  • Mensen zijn zeer gemotiveerd om te willen leren als de omgeving meewerkt, als ze vrij zijn van spanning, als ze controle en vrijheid hebben over hetgeen geleerd wordt en als de uitdaging aansluit bij de beschikbare capaciteit.
  • De leukste manier van leren is er één waar je spelenderwijs leert. Echt leren is een proces dat zowel cognitief als affectief is. Dat zowel actief als reflectief is.
  • De meeste mensen delen de volgende interessses: Voedsel Sex Alles wat hen status en macht verleent Babies Huisdieren
  • Onze hersenen zijn het tussenresultaat van een lange lange evolutionaire geschiedenis. Een van de oudste delen is het zogenaamde Limbische Systeem – hier is dat het gekleurde deel in de tekening. Het is oorspronkelijk van reptiel origine.
  • Het is buitengewoon interessant te weten dat onze emoties en onze plaatsbepaling in dat limbisch systeem wordt georganiseerd. Caveman story…
  • We now also know that the limbic system is pivotal in our capacity to memorize the important things in life. All our important long term memories – those we can retrieve more or less easily – are controlled in the limbic system.
  • De meeste mensen verkeren in een hogere staat van opwinding als ze in een nieuwe situatie, een nieuwe omgeving, met onbekende mensen en zaken terechtkomen. Op die momenten worden alle indrukken (juist die we perceptueel waarnemen: geur, temperatuur, smaak, geluiden, beelden) door het limbisch systeem gefilterd. In milliseconden kennen we emotionele waarde toe aan dat wat we meemaken.
  • Alle memorabele gebeurtenissen, alles dat we makkelijk kunnen onthouden, is emotioneel gelabeld. Het is hier aardig om op te merken dat musea - gezien vanuit het limbisch systeem - met hun 3D tentoonstellingen en routings (zeg maar met hun geografische karakter), in combinatie met alle emotioneel geladen collecties, goed doordachte interpretatie, fraaie grafische en ruimtelijke ontwerp met passende kleurstellingen, uitdagende audiovisuele presentaties, geluiden, geuren, etc.. een nagenoeg ideale leeromgeving zijn.
  • Je eigen interne kennislandschap – de kenniskaart in je hersenen – bepaalt voor een groot deel òf nieuwe kennis, nieuwe inzichten, en hóe de nieuwe kennis wordt verwerkt.
  • De Zwitserse psycholoog Jean Piaget had het in dit geval dan ook over assimileren van kennis. Nieuwe kennis valt samen met bestaande kennis die deels wordt herbevestigd.
  • Vanuit de bestaande kennis die je hebt kun je immers de diepte ingaan, diepgang gaan zoeken…
  • Leren is sociaal. We leren middels: Taal Lichaamstaal Door bij elkaar af te kijken We gebruiken instrumenten (boeken, tv, computers, objecten, tentoonstellingen, enz…) We hanteren abstracte symbolen Alles binnen een historisch gegroeide en culturele gelaagdheid. Hier spelen gedeelde normen, waarden en geloofssystemen een rol.
  • Culturaliteit is geen genetisch begrip. Een mens groeit op in en culturele omgeving die de geest vormt. De antropoloog John Ogbu stelt dat cultuur uit 5 elementen bestaat.
  • Gewoontes en gedrag
  • Codes (die versleutelt moeten worden), aannames en verwachtingen. Dit zit dus een laag dieper dan direct te observeren gedrag.
  • Betekenisvolle cultuur-eigen artefacten
  • Geïnstitutionaliseerde cultuur. Religieuze instellingen Economische systemen Politieke vorm Sociale manifestatie van het leven Dit samenhangende geheel maakt een samenleving voorspelbaar.
  • Persoonlijke sociale banden
  • In een gelijkgestemde groep - samen met ‘peers’ - evaringen delen kan het leren sterk vergroten…
  • Grote autonome groepen hebben een sterke weerslag op individuele (leer)ervaringen van anderen
  • (PS Er zijn prachtige doelgroepprogramma ’s mogelijk voor o.a. dementerende bejaarden die aan de hand van hands-on collecties weer flarden van hun geheugen terugkrijgen.)
  • Gezinnen met hun eigen socio-culturele eigenaardigheden kunnen heel sterke leerprocessen opgang brengen. Men verstaat elkaars (lichaams)taal optimaal. Ouders helpen kinderen complexe zake te verduidelijken. Kinderen ‘openen’ met hun ontwapenende blik hun ouders de ogen.
  • Hier kan op interactieve wijze door middel van vraag, onderzoek en antwoord een unieke rol voor de staf worden weggelegd.
  • Hier kan op interactieve wijze door middel van vraag, onderzoek en antwoord een unieke rol voor de staf worden weggelegd.
  • Rolspel, rondleidingen, demonstraties, workshops, enz… ze kunnen allemaal het sociale leren in het museum drastisch verhogen.
  • Heel veel (weinig ervaren) museumbezoekers zien vrijwel alleen suppoosten als representant van het museum…
  • Kijk ook uit voor de te ijverige rondleider of suppoost. Net als winkelpersoneel dat je te graag iets wil verkopen wekt het weerstand…
  • Het begint thuis: je wilt een museum bezoeken – van horen zeggen, een recensie, een advertentie, surfen op het web Hoe kom je er?
  • Het begint thuis: je wilt een museum bezoeken – van horen zeggen, een recensie, een advertentie, surfen op het web Hoe kom je er?
  • Tekst in de vitrine. Interactieve touch screen met informatie en quiz. B-tekst Handout in groot lettertype in zijkant van bank Audio dmv van telefoon
  • Hier zowel auditief met een telefoon als tekstueel (in groot lettertype).
  • Hier een voorbeeld van hoe je stap voor stap kunt ontdekken wat de klassieke en wat de 19de eeuwse vaas is.
  • Horecawet! Zorg dat wat je biedt een goede prijs/kwaliteit heeft. Slechte ervaringen worden 5x doorverteld, goede slechts 2x.

Transcript

  • 1. Rethinking Museums from a Visitor’s Perspective Tuesday 3 September 2013 ing. Ruben Smit MA The Interactive Museum Experience (Falk & Dierking)
  • 2. Unlocking the visitor’s mind An introduction
  • 3. Rethinking Museums Some statements…
  • 4. Some statements… “People come to museums carrying with them the rest of their lives, their own reasons for visiting and their specific prior experience.” (Eilean Hooper-Greenhill)
  • 5. Some statements… "(…) the multiformity of exhibitions ensures that museum visitors will interact in an almost endless variety of ways with the exhibits and with each other." (Kathleen McLean)
  • 6. Some statements… “Fun must be part of the exhibition experience --- or visitors simply will ignore the exhibits!” (Chandler Screven)
  • 7. Some statements… “If you want to educate a mind you first need to entertain it.” (Walt Disney)
  • 8. Some statements… “A museum can sparkle, kindle excitement, and be an uplifting experience, or it can be tawdry and depressing in spite of the glory of its collections. A museum environment is not neutral; its quality and atmospheredirectly affect those who visit it, (…)” (Design Team Royal Ontario Museum 1975)
  • 9. Some statements… “(Museums) can be shelters from the rain, mortuaries for dead objects, shrines to the memory of wealthy donors (…), forums for debate, repositories for community archives, centres of scholar- ship and understanding, instruments of social control, locations for recreation and reflection, sacred places where the spirits of the ancestors rest, anchor tenants in urban renewal programmes, lovers’ meets or places to lose children.” (Gaynor Kavanagh)
  • 10. Museum Experience Model The Museum Experience by John Falk and Lynn Dierking Three contexts: 1. Personal Context 2. Social Context 3. Physical Context Lynn Dierking & John Falk
  • 11. "Traditionally, museum professionals have failed to recognize that visitors create their own museum experience, (…)" (Falk and Dierking)
  • 12. 1. Personal Context personal context
  • 13. 1. Motivation and expectations 2. Prior knowledge and experience 3. Prior interests and believes 4. Choice and control personal context
  • 14. ♦ In it’s core learning leads to the reconfirmation of yourself… ♦ Your identity is partly determined by what you make and understand of your surroundings. Learning is self-confirming… 1. Personal Context motivation
  • 15. ♦ Motivation to learn is intrinsic. ♦ People are curious by nature. ♦ Wanting to learn is what makes us human. The need to learn, curiousity, it is all very human… 1. Personal Context motivation
  • 16. ♦ Learning is not just about facts and concepts, especially intrinsic learning often is a very emotional experience. True learning is both cognitive and emotional 1. Personal Context affection
  • 17. ♦ A deeply felt interest enhances the learning process. Interest is key to true learning… 1. Personal Context affection
  • 18. ♦ Our brains are the evolutionary result that took millions of years ♦ The oldest part (on top of the brain stem) is the so called limbic system. 1. Personal Context affection
  • 19. ♦ Within that part of the brain our emotional and geographical memory is stored. 1. Personal Context affection
  • 20. ♦ We now understand that the limbic system is central in our capacity to remember important things. ♦ The limbic system is the central unit that regulates our memory. ‘Memory’ Daniel Chester French (1917- 1. Personal Context affection
  • 21. ♦ Most people are in a higher state of alertness or even anxiety when they encounter a new situation or a new environment. ♦ On these moments all our impressions are being filtered by our limbic system. ♦ In the speed of light we emotionally tag and label our experiences. 1. Personal Context affection
  • 22. ♦ We can assume that all things we want to remember are emotionally ear-marked by our limbic system. ♦ In other words: memorable experiences have an emotional label. What is emotionally experienced, will be remembered… 1. Personal Context affection
  • 23. ♦ New facts always land on top of existing knowledge. ♦ Pre-knowledge by and large determines how this new knowledge finds it’s place. Knowledge always builds on existing knowledge… 1. Personal Context construction
  • 24. ♦ The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget assumed that knowledge was assimilated. ♦ New knowledge partly covers existing knowledge that as such is reconfirmed. 1. Personal Context construction
  • 25. ♦ As such pre-knowledge is very likely a strong base for further learning. 1. Personal Context construction
  • 26. “Numerous nonprofit organizations have discovered to their dismay that consumer expectations are higher than management had anticipated, and that users demand quality service from public and nonprofit organizations just as they do from private firms.” (Lovelock and Wineberg)
  • 27. 2. Social Context social context personal context
  • 28. 5. Within-group sociocultural mediation 6. Facilitated mediation by others social context
  • 29. ♦ People are intrinsically social. ♦ Learning often is a social process and is not isolated. 2. Social Context learning together You share and build knowledge with other people…
  • 30. ♦ The learning process is strongly mediated by: – spoken language, – body language, – observation, – use of socio-cultural means, – symbols, – and all of this in a historically and culturally layered context of societal -, religious -, and shared value systems. 2. Social Context learning together
  • 31. ♦ The concept of ‘culture’ is complex. In this context it is wise to see culture in relationship to learning. ♦ Culture is not genetically transferred. You grow up in a society where the existing culture ‘moulds’ you. ♦ The educational anthropologist John Ogbu claims that culture consists out of 5 components: 2. Social Context socialization
  • 32. 1. Habits and ways of life. ♦ Think about: work, food, expressing affection, how to raise kids, marrying, etc… 2. Social Context socialization
  • 33. 2. Codes or assumptions, expectations and emotions that are at the base of that behaviour. 2. Social Context socialization
  • 34. 3. Meaningful artefacts and things the community produces. ♦ Think about: harbours, houses, cars, chairs, etc… 2. Social Context socialization
  • 35. 4. Institutions of a economical, political, religious or social order. ♦ All these form a recognisable meshwork of: knowledge, believes, qualities, behaviour that makes a society more or less predictable. 2. Social Context socialization
  • 36. 5. Patrons and social ties. ♦ Think about: family, school, friends, university, colleagues, etc… 2. Social Context socialization
  • 37. It does make a difference how the social context of a museum manifests it selves… With mind-like fellow students? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 38. …or tourists in large quantities? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 39. …with elderly people? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 40. …school kids? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 41. …families? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 42. …to many young toddlers? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 43. …or with no-one present and the museum seems to be all yours? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 44. …what about front of house staff? Policing? 2. Social Context at the museum The security staff on the museum steps, ca 1902
  • 45. Or helping and participating? 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 46. …as role players or actors? 2. Social Context at the museum What would you like to ask Gene Cernan, the last man to step on the Moon in 1972? Science Museum
  • 47. Passive and slightly sad in a corner? 2. Social Context at the museum Museum Guard by Duane Hanson
  • 48. or…as a guide just a little too eager and as such intrusive? Social interaction with museum staff can strongly influence the experience. 2. Social Context at the museum
  • 49. All tangible reality contributes to this part of the experience. From easy access to clean toilets; from exciting exhibitions to freshly brewed coffee in the museum’s cafe; from a well-stocked museum shop to clear signposting.
  • 50. 3. Physical Context social context       physical context personal context
  • 51. 7. Advance organizers 8. Orientation to the physical space 9. Architecture and large scale environment 10. Design of exhibits and interpretation / content delivery 11. Reinforcing events and experiences outside the museum       physical context
  • 52. Advance organizers How do you get there? 3. Physical Context The fysical context starts at home with leaflets or websites of the museums.
  • 53. 3. Physical Context Advance organizers Website easy to navigate? With ample but not overwhelming information?
  • 54. Advance organizers How do you get there? 3. Physical Context
  • 55. Advance organizers Are there clear signposts leading to the museum? 3. Physical Context
  • 56. Orientation to the physical space …is there a clear entrance? 3. Physical Context
  • 57. Orientation to the physical space Where do you buy your ticket? 3. Physical Context
  • 58. Orientation to the physical space Once in the building is there a clear routing? 3. Physical Context
  • 59. Orientation to the physical space Is there easy orientation within the exhibition? What about routing and pacing? 3. Physical Context
  • 60. Orientation to the physical space How do (large) objects fit in the existing architectural space? 3. Physical Context
  • 61. Orientation to the physical space … and if they are truly small, how are they being displayed? 3. Physical Context
  • 62. Design of exhibits and interpretation / content delivery Is there a multitude of interpretation devices? 3. Physical Context
  • 63. Design of exhibits and interpretation / content delivery Is interpretation provided in different ways? 3. Physical Context
  • 64. …is the interpretation passive or activating? 3. Physical Context
  • 65. …are there any other means of interpretation like interactive audio- visuals? 3. Physical Context
  • 66. …or hands-on? 3. Physical Context
  • 67. Architecture and large scale environment Can the visitor also sit down and rest for some contemplation? 3. Physical Context
  • 68. Architecture and large scale environment …is there a café or museum restaurant? 3. Physical Context
  • 69. Architecture and large scale environment …quality of the restrooms? 3. Physical Context
  • 70. Architecture and large scale environment …and finally is there a well assorted museum shop? 3. Physical Context
  • 71. Reinforcing events & experiences outside the museum …e.g. Post-Visit on-line feedback of recent visit 3. Physical Context
  • 72. Reinforcing events & experiences outside the museum 3. Physical Context
  • 73. Museum Experience Model The museum visitor’s experience is the result of the overlapping of the physical context, the social context, and the personal context.
  • 74. Museum Experience Model social context       physical context personal context Museum Experience
  • 75. Museum Experience Model
  • 76. Museum Experience Model “Each visitor’s experience is different, because each brings his own personal and social contexts, because each is differently affected by the physical context, and because each makes different choices as to which aspect of that context to focus on.” (Falk and Dierking)
  • 77. Dream Space and its implication for museums Discussion on Museum Experience ing. Ruben Smit MA (Sheldon Annis)
  • 78. Sheldon Annis: “The Museum as staging Ground for Symbolic Action” The idea of a multi-layered museum experience connects well with Sheldon Annis’ vision of the museum as an expressive medium, with visitors moving through three similarly overlapping and influential spaces: 1. cognitive space 2. pragmatic space 3. dream space
  • 79. Sheldon Annis cognitive space Cognitive space is the museum’s striving to facilitate (life long) learning. Here the museum provides the accumulated knowledge on a topic related to the collections. The museum expertly presents this knowledge in the light of the museums subject and the needs of the audiences.
  • 80. Sheldon Annis cognitive space cognitive space
  • 81. Sheldon Annis pragmatgic space Visitors are playing roles: are they there primarily as teacher, parent, partner or friend? The motivation for visiting is very often socially determined. If visiting an exhibition with a friend results in a stronger bond with that friend, the memory of the visit will be pleasant, because of that result. The content of the exhibition can have become pleasantly vague, or even completely forgotten.
  • 82. Sheldon Annis pragmatic space pragmatic space cognitive space
  • 83. Sheldon Annis dream space “In museum dream space there is a flow of images and meanings - highly personal, sometimes lulling, sometimes surprising, more or less conscious: ‘I like this’, ‘I don’t like this’, ‘I don’t care about that’, ‘I know this’, etc.” (Annis)
  • 84. Sheldon Annis dream space “In dream space many things might tumble through our minds: bits of songs, half-written shopping lists, things left unsaid. The shape or shadow of something, its texture or colour, the operation of space and the people moving through it can be triggers to an endless range of personal association.” (Kavanagh)
  • 85. Sheldon Annis dream space pragmatic space       dream space cognitive space
  • 86. Sheldon Annis pragmatic space       dream space cognitive space              
  • 87. Sheldon Annis “The artefacts are clearly tangible; it is the emotions that they evoke which are intangible. Experience, therefore is the intangible characteristic of the museum, (…).” (Fiona McLean)