The Battle to Eliminate Malaria Part 2 of 2
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The Battle to Eliminate Malaria Part 2 of 2

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The Battle to Eliminate Malaria Part 2 of 2 The Battle to Eliminate Malaria Part 2 of 2 Presentation Transcript

  • The Battle to Eliminate Malaria This breakout session lasts for 90 minutes during this time more than  100 children will die from malaria
  • Agenda PDG Ian Priestley – The science stuff PDG Richmond Manyweathers – RAM Ron Seddon ‐ Malaria in PNG PDG Phil Dempster – Timor Leste and the Solomon Islands Q&A
  • Vaccine – is it the answer?
  • Malaria Lifecycle
  • Malaria lifecycle - the simplified version Step 1 ‐ The female anopheles mosquito bites someone and the  ‘malaria’ passes into the blood. Step 2 ‐ The ‘malaria’ travels to the liver and multiplies and  transforms. Step 3 – The transformed  ‘malaria’ enter the red blood cells. Step 4 – The red blood cells disintegrate and the infection spreads. Step 5 ‐ The female anopheles mosquito bites someone and the  whole cycle starts again.
  • Why a vaccine? Drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquitos are  becoming more prevalent. Resistance to artemisin drugs is on the increase. Some drugs such as Chloroquine are now largely ineffective against  some parasites. Some people develop immunity. Eradication with current tools is not possible.
  • Malaria Vaccine Advantages • Cost effective concept. • Proven against other diseases. • Efficacy of 85 to 90%. • Disadvantages • Life cycle of mosquito (4 stages to  target). • Efficacy of 85 to 90%. s Cost a factor? – One company has publically stated that they will only charge cost A new drug typically cost $2Bn to bring to market and takes 12 years.
  • Types of vaccine Type 1 ‐ primary objective to reduce the number of severe malaria  cases and deaths in infants and children exposed to high transmission rates. Help for local population. Type 2 ‐ aiming to prevent all cases of clinical symptoms in individuals with no previous exposure. Help for travellers.
  • Does it work? Trials showed that in children  • Severe malaria cases were reduced by 36%. • Hospitalisations were reduced by 42%. Infants aged 6‐12 weeks • Severe malaria cases were reduced by 15%. • Hospitalisations were reduced by 17%. Overall, vaccine efficacy declined over time, but re‐vaccination works! ITNs are 99% effective but not everyone uses them.
  • Conclusions Vaccines are a great step forward They need to be used in combination with other things