Open Educational Resources 3Presentation Transcript
Open Educational Resources Lunchtime Seminar 11 May 2011 PJM Source: www.unesco.org
The next 25 minutes Definitions Kinds of OER Major contributors Examples Copyright Future The debate
OER Definitions “Open Educational Resources are teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and distribution” (UNESCO, 2002) “…accumulated digital assets that can be adjusted” (OECD, 2007) “… making educational resources widely available by digitising collections of materials and enabling people to reuse and adapt existing content to support teaching and learning” (JISC, 2008) “At the heart of the movement toward Open Educational Resources is the simple and powerful idea that the world's knowledge is a public good and that technology in general and the Worldwide Web in particular provide an extraordinary opportunity for everyone to share, use, and reuse it.” (Smith & Casserly, 2006, p. 8)
Learning content Full courses, courseware, content modules, learning objects, collections, journals Tools Software to support development, use, re-use and delivery of content, CMSs, LMSs, online communities Implementation resources IP licences, design principles of best practice, localisation of content (William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 2006) What forms do OERs come in?
OER Organisations OER Commons MIT OpenCourseWare Connexions Open Learning Initiative OpenLearn, LearningSpace, LabSpace MERLOT Jorum Commonwealth of Learning WikiEducator China Open Resources for Education (CORE) ITunesU …
Copyright Not well understood Web 2.0 Support Obstacle? Help is available …
Copyright Strategic Content Alliance JISC British Library BBC MLA Council Wellcome Trust
Creativecommons.org Alternative to ‘copyleft’ or ‘all rights reserved’ Some rights reserved Global legal recognition Six licences with four conditions Attribution CC BY Attribution-NoDerivs CC BY-ND Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA Attribution-ShareAlike CC BY-SA Attribution-NonCommercial CC BY Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC BY
Creative Commons Licensing Attribution (CC BY) Distribute, remix, tweak and build upon work (+ commercially). Must give credit. Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA) Distribute, remix, tweak and build upon work (+ commercially). Must give credit and licence new creations under same terms. Attribution-NoDerivs (CC BY-ND) Redistribute (commercial and non-commercially) but unchanged, whole and with credit to original author. Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY) Remix, tweak, build upon work non-commercially. New works must credit original author and be non-commercial. Derivatives not on same terms. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA) Remix, tweak and build upon work non-commercially. Credit original author and licence derivatives on same terms i.e., non commercial. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY) Cannot be changed or used commercially.
OER University Vision 2007 Adapted from Taylor 2007 Source: wikieducator.org
OER University Vision 2011
Kinds of education Rhizomatic (Cormier 2008) Euphorbia rhizophora (source: Vincentz 2007)
The Debate Open and Distance Learning: a threat? Textbooks, universities, government ... Learners opting for OER … Quality, Standards, Processes, Skills, Assessment Sustainability Adoption, funding, ownership, format … Growth of OER communities Adaptation is difficult Measuring impact Education: public good, human right or consumer product?