Wasteful Wor ldRecycling in GermanyRenewable and Non-RenewableEnergy
How is waste r ecycled? Glass is sorted into colours, washed, crushed, melted and reformed into new products. Cans are split into steel and aluminium, melted down and turned into new products. Paper is sorted into bails and sent to the paper mill to be turned into new products. Plastics are sorted into their types, shredded and then reprocessed. Waste that cannot be recycled is sent to landfill or incinerated.
CASE STUDY - Ger many Landfill – has 160 landfill sites, waste is processed before landfill to reduce its impact. Incineration – has 68 incinerators, plans to build more, some are mini power plants producing electricity. Recycling – strict laws on recycling, companies can display the Green Dot emblem to show the packaging is recyclable, exports waste be recycled, recycles 60% of its waste. Nuclear waste – Germany does not have a deep mine or reprocessing plant, has to sent waste to UK or France for reprocessing – expensive, sends waste to Siberia to be buried in deep mines, they are planning to build a reprocessing plant and convert a deep mine in the future. Toxic waste – they export much of this as it is expensive to deal with in Germany, 6000 litres of toxic waste was sent to Albania disguised as humanitarian aid where it leaked into a lake killing all aquatic life.
Non-renewable ener g ysour ces – they will r unout!!! Coal + Supplies should last for another 250 years, easy to convert into energy, cheap to mine.- Bulky to transport, releases greenhouse gases, will not last forever. Oil + Easy to convert into energy, cheap to extract, supplies should last for another 50 years.- Very expensive to buy, releases greenhouse gases, will not last forever.
Non-r enewable ener g ysour ces Gas + Cleaner fuel than oil or coal, supplies should last for another 70 years, easy to convert into energy. - Will not last forever, gives off greenhouse gases. Nuclear + Does not give off greenhouse gases, raw materials will last along time, a small amount gives off a lot of energy. - Reactors are expensive to build and run, waste is highly radioactive, waste has to be stored for many years, risk of nuclear accidents.
Renewable ener g ysour ces – never r unout!! Solar + No fuel costs, does not give off greenhouse gases, can be fitted on rooves,- Not efficient in countries with little sunshine, can be expensive to buy and install, don’t produce that much energy. Wind + New wind turbines are quiet and efficient, doesn’t give off greenhouse gases, can be build on land or at sea.- Need consistent high wind speeds, regular servicing needed, visually intrusive, can kill birds/disturb migration patterns.
Geothermal + No greenhouse gases, cheap once built, provides a lot of energy.- Power stations are expensive to build, need to be in specific areas – where there is geothermal activity e.g. Iceland. Hydroelectric + No greenhouse gases, cheap once built, can produce large lakes for leisure purposes.- Alter water flow in rivers, only built in certain areas, people have to move. Tidal + No greenhouse gases, cheap once built, tidal barrages can also be used as bridges.- Can be a problem for shipping, expensive to build, can damage wildlife, can only be built in suitable areas.
Ener g y sur plus anddeficitsurplus is when the country Energy produces too much energy to fulfil its needs. Examples include – Canada, Russia, China, Australia, Saudi Arabia. Energy deficit is when countries don’t produce enough energy to meet their needs. Examples include USA, Brazil, India, Germany, France, Spain, Bangladesh, Iceland, Italy.
Carbon footprints The carbon footprint of a place, country, business or individual depends on the amount of greenhouse gases they produce. LICs tend to have smaller carbon footprints than HICs.
Management of ener g ywaste on a domesticscale Turning lights off when not in use. Unplug chargers after use. Turn the heating down in summer. Keep doors and windows closed. Replace inefficient electrical products. Loft insulation Cavity wall insulation Ground source heating pump Double or triple glazing. Solar panels/solar water heating panels. Wind turbines Recycling bins
Management of ener g ywaste on a local scale British Gas is working with local councils to improve efficiency. If houses implement changes to save energy they get money off their council tax bill. Aberdeen Council have installed a communal boiler in a block of flats. This is much more efficient. Wind turbines can be built at schools and businesses to power them. Any excess energy can be sold to the National Grid.
Management of ener g ywaste on a national scale A grant of £2500 per household is available to install things like wind turbines and solar panels. No planning permission is needed for solar panels and wind turbines. Up to £1 million available for public buildings to install green technologies. UK e-day – when people are asked to think about their energy usage and to turn things off.