1. The Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System for The Domain Model of anPoor Compre- henders Adaptive Learning System for Oana Tifrea ¸ Poor ComprehendersOutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My Thesis Oana Tifrea ¸AdaptiveLearning Free University of Bozen-BolzanoSystems andOntologiesThe Domain Advisor:Model Dr. Rosella GennariStory OntologyGame Ontology Co-advisor:Work in Dr. Tania di MascioProgress: theStudent Model
2. The Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders 1 Motivations and Objectives of My Thesis Oana Tifrea ¸Outline 2 Adaptive Learning Systems and OntologiesMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearning 3 The Domain ModelSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModel 4 Work in Progress: the Student ModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
3. MotivationThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System for Poor comprehender (PC)Poor Compre- henders • Comprehension = identiﬁcation, understanding and Oana Tifrea ¸ reasoningOutline • PC can identify the words, but cannot understand orMotivations reason about themand Objectivesof My Thesis • 10% of hearing 8-10 year-old childrenAdaptiveLearningSystems and ProblemOntologiesThe Domain the requirements of poor comprehenders not clearly speciﬁedModel ⇓Story OntologyGame Ontology no learning material easily adaptable to PCs’ requirementsWork inProgress: theStudent Model
4. The Objective of My ThesisThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- • The TERENCE EU project aims at building an adaptive henders Oana Tifrea ¸ learning system for poor comprehenders. • In order to build the TERENCE adaptive learning systemOutline we need to structure its learning material, that is made ofMotivationsand Objectives 1 diverse types of stories,of My Thesis 2 interactive question-games for reasoning about stories.AdaptiveLearning • Structuring the learning material is the task of the domainSystems andOntologies model of TERENCE.The DomainModel • The main goal of my thesis is building the domain modelStory OntologyGame Ontology for the learning material of TERENCE.Work inProgress: theStudent Model
5. Adaptive Learning SystemsThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- ALSs adapt the learning material to the user needs. henders Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
6. The Conceptual Model of an ALSThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Conceptual Model of an ALS Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
7. Why Ontologies for the Conceptual ModelThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- Why ontologies for the TERENCE conceptual model? henders Oana Tifrea ¸ 1 OWL has formal semantics and we can to write algorithms.Outline 2 We can write in OWL both the domain knowledge and theMotivations operational knowledge.and Objectivesof My Thesis 3 To build a common terminology.AdaptiveLearning 4 To analyze the knowledge to be acquired, and makeSystems andOntologies implicit assumptions explicit.The Domain 5 In case of the student model, to share adaptation rulesModelStory Ontology among diﬀerent ALSs via appropriate web services.Game OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
8. The Ontology Life CycleThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- Speciﬁcation Identify purposes henders Determine how to acquire knowledge Oana Tifrea ¸ Design the ontology architectureOutlineMotivations Conceptualization Extract concepts...and Objectivesof My Thesis Formalization Choose the level and type of formalismAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologies Implementation Choose the implementation language...The DomainModel Building stageStory OntologyGame Ontology Manipulation stageWork inProgress: theStudent Model Maintainance stage
9. Speciﬁcation: Ontology ArchitectureThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning IMPORTED IN System for storyPoor Compre- henders ontology Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivations bridgeand Objectives common ontologyof My Thesis ontologyAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModel gameStory Ontology ontologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model DOMAIN ONTOLOGIES
10. Speciﬁcation: Main PurposesThe Domain Main purpose of the domain model: Model of an Adaptive • classifying stories and games for Learning System for directing the end user towards thePoor Compre- henders most adequate class of stories or Oana Tifrea ¸ games.Outline Speciﬁc purposes of the:Motivations 1 story ontology: analyzing and specifying concepts diﬃcultand Objectivesof My Thesis for poor comprehenders in stories;AdaptiveLearning 2 game ontology: analyzing and specifying the relatedSystems andOntologies question-games for poor comprehenders;The Domain 3 common ontology: incorporating the common concepts ofModelStory Ontology the story and game ontologies, such as the languageGame OntologyWork in concept;Progress: theStudent Model 4 bridge ontology: connecting the story and game ontologies.
11. Speciﬁcation: How to Acquire the Domain KnowledgeThe Domain Model of an How was the knowledge for building the domain model Adaptive Learning acquired? System for 1 Via expert-based evaluations with:Poor Compre- henders • (psycho-)linguists, e.g., Paul van den Broek; Oana Tifrea ¸ • psychologists expert of deaf poor comprehenders, e.g., Barbara Arf´; eOutline • psychologists expert of hearing poor comprehenders, e.g.,Motivationsand Objectives Jane Oakhill, Barbara Carretti.of My Thesis 2 Via a selection of reusable sources from the domainAdaptiveLearning literature, guided by the domain experts.Systems andOntologies How were the expert evaluations con-The Domain ducted? Via:ModelStory Ontology • questionnaires;Game OntologyWork in • interviews;Progress: theStudent Model • two focus-groups: one in l’Aquila in June; one in Padova in July 2010.
12. Conceptualization: Why the Middle-Out ApproachThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸ 1 We followed the middle-out approach in the conceptualization, becauseOutline • there were no reusable ontologies for poor comprehenders,Motivations • after analysing the speciﬁc purposes of our ontologies, weand Objectivesof My Thesis could easily identify independent clusters of basic conceptsAdaptive of our domain model, that we then generalized orLearningSystems and specialized.OntologiesThe Domain 2 How?ModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
13. Conceptualization: Context of Use for the Domain KnowledgeThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning More general or speciﬁc concepts for the domain model were System forPoor Compre- extracted from the context of use that we analyzed, namely: henders • relevant text/story analysis concepts: Oana Tifrea ¸ • mainly, concepts of reading diﬃculty formulae, and theOutline more reﬁned Coh-metrix concept scheme;Motivations • general text analysis ontologies;and Objectives • ontologies/concept schemes for temporal features of texts;of My ThesisAdaptive • relevant taxonomies ofLearningSystems and • reading comprehension;Ontologies • reading interventions.The DomainModel But, how did we decideStory OntologyGame Ontology • which concepts were relevant for our domain model,Work inProgress: the • and which had to be reﬁned or enriched?Student Model
14. Conceptualization: User RequirementsThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸   word, e.g., abstract words,Outline hearing = sentence, e.g., word orderMotivations  discourse, e.g., reasoning on events; and Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptive  word, e.g., word recognition,Learning deaf = sentence, e.g., inter-sentence relatives,Systems and discourse, e.g., reasoning on events. OntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
15. Conceptualization: Hearing Poor Comprehenders Analysis at Word LevelThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
16. Implementation: Main Concepts of the Story OntologyThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders The story ontology’s main concepts are: Oana Tifrea ¸ • the syntactic structure of the story (e.g., words, sentences,Outline paragraphs),Motivationsand Objectives • the semantic structure of the story (e.g., events),of My ThesisAdaptive • the coherence of the story,LearningSystems and • the genre of the story,OntologiesThe Domain • the title of the story.ModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
17. Implementation: Story OntologyThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
18. Implementation: Local Coherence of the StoryThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
19. Implementation: Adjacent EventsThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
20. Implementation: A Fragment of the Game OntologyThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
21. Speciﬁcation: The Student Ontology and Its PurposeThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- henders Student Model of an ALS Oana Tifrea ¸OutlineMotivationsand Objectivesof My ThesisAdaptiveLearningSystems andOntologiesThe DomainModelStory OntologyGame OntologyWork inProgress: theStudent Model
22. Speciﬁcation: Main Sources for the Student OntologyThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System forPoor Compre- Main sources for the student ontology: henders • KBS-Hyperbook and TRAILS; Oana Tifrea ¸ • AHA!;OutlineMotivations • GUMO/GRAPPLE.and Objectivesof My Thesis GUMO-Basic deﬁnes generic user characteristics andAdaptiveLearning personality traits by means of the so-called Characteristics andSystems andOntologies Personality classes.The DomainModel We will reﬁne GUMO-Basic with concepts related to theStory OntologyGame Ontology domain ontology and the user requirements.Work inProgress: theStudent Model
23. ConclusionsThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Summing up, my thesis work meant: Learning System forPoor Compre- 1 analyzing the state of the art of ALSs, focusing on their henders conceptual models, Oana Tifrea ¸ 2 analyzing and specifying the context of use necessary forOutline building the TERENCE ALS (part of a technical workingMotivationsand Objectives document of WP1 of TERENCE),of My Thesis 3 analyzing and specifying the user requirements (part of aAdaptiveLearning technical working document of WP1 of TERENCE),Systems andOntologies 4 using them forThe Domain • building the ontologies of the domain model,ModelStory Ontology • specifying the student model.Game OntologyWork in Last but not least, all this was done, iteratively, under theProgress: theStudent Model constant guidance of the domain experts.
24. AcknowledgmentsThe Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning System for My thanks to:Poor Compre- henders • my supervisor, Rosella Gennari, and co-supervisor, Tania di Oana Tifrea ¸ Mascio;Outline • the psychologists and linguists of TERENCE, in particular:Motivationsand Objectives B. Arf´, B. Carretti, Padova U.; J. Oakhill, Sussex U.; eof My Thesis • F. Abel, E. Herder, and W. Nejdl from L3S, Hannover U.,AdaptiveLearning for the GUMO user ontology;Systems andOntologies • ontology engineers, in particular, M. Rodriguez Muro, M.The DomainModel Keet;Story OntologyGame Ontology • software engineers from l’Aquila U.Work inProgress: theStudent Model
25. level sistency of information in sentences. A Snapshot have that requireswith accessing thePoor Comprehenders memory the Hearing Working memory PC of diﬃculties the simultaneous [NABCS99] storage of sentences. Analysis at Discourse Level Table 4.2: Poor comprehenders and written sentence comprehen- sion.The Domain Model of an Adaptive Learning Poor comprehenders (PC) characteristics at DISCOURSE LEVEL System forPoor Compre- Yes No henders The cause of diﬃculties on this level is not memory. [Oak82] [MO09] Oana Tifrea ¸ [CO07] A) Inference Making PC have diﬃculties with [CO07]Outline inference making. [BCS05] BK is not a relevant [OCBP01]Motivations parameter for inference [Oak82]and Objectives making.of My Thesis PC have diﬃculties with [COE03]Adaptive inference integration. [LK06]Learning Inference Integration Inference integration can [OC96]Systems and be improved with visual-Ontologies ization.The Domain PC have problems with [Cai09]Model consistency checking. [CO06a]Story Ontology Logical inferences easier [CO99]Game Ontology to improve than the prag-Work in matic inferences.Progress: the 1)Logical Inferences PC have diﬃculties with [Oak82]Student Model logical inferences. [Chi92]
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