Cement by Nikhil Pakwanne


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Cement by Nikhil Pakwanne

  2. 2. CEMENT Created BY:- Nikhil Pakwanne
  3. 3. CEMENT Cement is a Building material obtained byburning and crushing of powder form , homogeneous and well proportioned mixture oflime (calcareous) and clay (argillaceous material).
  4. 4. Chemicals and material Tri-calcium silicate (Ca) Di-calcium silicate Tri-calcium aluminate Tetra-calcium alumino ferriteOther Chemicals Lime Silica Alumina Iron oxide Magnesia Soda and Potash Sulphur tri-oxide Free lime
  5. 5. Manufacturing process of cement
  6. 6. Manufacturing of cement There are 3 steps of manufacturing of cement2) Mixing of raw materials3) Burning4) Grinding1) Mixing of raw Material :- clay and limestone are taken in appropriate proportion and mixed in dry and wet condition.2) Burning:- mixed material is heated about 1400 – 1600 Degree celcius and cooled by passing through coolers.3) Grinding:- so material obtained (clinker) is ground in mill and 2 % to 4 % gypsum is added to control the setting time of cement
  7. 7. T ype o C e nt sf me1)Ordinary Portland cement2)Portland Pozzolana Cement3)Sulphate Resisting Cement4)Coloured Cement5)Rediset Cement6)Very high strength cement7)Rapid Hardening Cement8) Portland Slag Cement9)Masonry Cement10)Oil Well Cement
  8. 8. Ordinary Portland Cement (is 269:1989) Although there are many types of Cement , about 80 -90% of total production is of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) only. OPC is classified in three types of grades depending upon strength of cement as 1)33 Grade 2)43 Grade 3)53 Grade Faster rate of development of strength Offers 10-20 % savings in cement consumption 33 grade cement is almost out of the market The manufacture of OPC is decreasing in view of popularity of blended cement on account of lower energy consumption, environmental pollution.
  9. 9. Portland Pozzolana Cement It is manufactured by intergrinding of OPC clinker with 10-25% of pozzolanic material PPC produces heat of hydration and offer greater resistance to the attack of aggressive water than OPC. PPC can generally be used where OPC is usable rate of development of strength unto 7 daysSuitability It is economical It offers durability charecteristics in marine & hydraulic structures Strength of PPC is higher than OPC
  10. 10. Coloured cement (is 8042-1989) For manufacturing of this cement ,white or grey portland cement is used as base Use of white cement is costly while using grey portland cement only red & brown cement can be produced Consists of PPC with 5-10% of pigment For manufacture of white portland cement required limestone is only available around Jodhpur(Rajasthan) White cement is ground finer than grey cement
  11. 11. Rapid Hardening Cement (is 8041-1990) This cement develops higher rate of development of strength Suitability -Road repair works -In pre-fabricated concrete construction -In cold weather concrete
  12. 12. Storage of cement Water proof mesonry walls should be provided. Leak proof roof with water proof cover should be provided. Ground should be drained away to prevent from rain water
  13. 13. Storage of cement bags Bags should not be allowed to directly rest on the walls. Not more than 15 bags be piled over the other. If cement is to be stored in mansoon or for long period piles should be covered by polythene sheet.
  14. 14. Field Tests for cement Cement should be of uniform color. When small sample of cement is rubbed between fingers ,it should feel smooth and cool. There should no lumps in the cement.
  15. 15. Laboratory tests of cement1)Fineness :- This test is varified by using I.S. sieve No.9. -now gentle sieving is done for fifteen minutes. -The residue left is measured this should not be exceed 10 % by weight of the sample of the cement.2)Consistency:- This is a test sonducted to estimate quantity of water to be mixed with cement.3) Soundness of cement ;- Due to excess of lime in the cement expansion of cement occurs, that should be minimized.
  16. 16. 4)Setting time :- The object of this test is to make distinction between normal setting time and final setting time. This test can be conducted by using Vicat apparatus.
  17. 17. References S.Ramamrutham ,Basics of civil Engineering,Dhanpat rai publishing company,New Delhi. www.cemex.com