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Lectures1 2



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  • 1. Interaction & VisualisationA 12-week ModuleEur Ing Dr Peter NichollSchool of Computing & Mathematical Sciences
  • 2. 1/2 - 2Contact Details• E-mailp.nicholl@ulst.ac.uk• Office16E08• TelephoneFrom outside: 028 9036 8910 (Internally: 8910)Mobile: 07967144854 or #6500• SecretaryMiss Sharon Kelly, 16J19
  • 3. 1/2 - 3Course Texts• Required reading– Computer Graphics (2nd edition), D. Hearn &M.P. Baker, pub. Prentice-Hall, 1994/7(ISBN 0-13-161530-0)• Recommended reading– Introduction to Computer Graphics, Foley, VanDam, et. al., pub. Addison-Wesley, 1994– 3D Computer Graphics, A. Watt, pub.Addison-Wesley, 1994
  • 4. 1/2 - 4Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics– Historical perspective– Application areas– Graphics standards– Graphics software
  • 5. 1/2 - 5Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics• Hardware & Software Support– Raster versus vector graphics– Picture encoding techniques– Display devices and hard copy
  • 6. 1/2 - 6Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics• Hardware & Software Support• Clipping in 2 Dimensions– Lines and polygons– Windows and simple transformations– Co-ordinate systems– Reflections, shears and composition
  • 7. 1/2 - 7Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics• Hardware & Software Support• Clipping in 2 Dimensions• Scan Conversion– Line drawing algorithms– Circle generating algorithms– Scan conversion of polygons– Aliasing and anti-aliasing methods
  • 8. Lectures One & TwoIntroduction to Computer Graphics& An Historical Perspective
  • 9. 1/2 - 9Application Areas: CAD• Computer-Aided Design– buildings, automobiles, aircraft, textiles,computers, spacecraft, watercraft– allows ‘what if’ investigation– designs can be animated– can be incorporated into virtual reality systems– final appearance - shading, lighting, in-situ– feed into computer-aided manufacture (CAM)
  • 10. 1/2 - 10Application Areas: Presentations• Presentation graphics– illustrations for reports– summarise data– production of 35mm slides and transparencies– project management, e.g. time charts
  • 11. 1/2 - 11Application Areas: Art• Computer Art– paintbrush software– modelling– texture mapping– mathematical art, e.g. fractals– desktop publishing (DTP)– logo design
  • 12. 1/2 - 12Application Areas:Entertainment• Motion pictures / music videos / TV shows– graphics scenes by themselves– graphics objects combined with actors• Morphing– transformation of one person / object intoanother
  • 13. 1/2 - 13Application Areas: Education• Education and Training– Models of physical, financial and economicsystems– Simulators
  • 14. 1/2 - 14Application Areas: Visualisation• Aids analysis of large amounts of data– colour coding, contour plots, surface rendering– examples: airflow over a wing, minimal surfacefunctions• Aids the study of the behaviour of certainprocesses– example: animation of the growth of a corn ear
  • 15. 1/2 - 15Related Disciplines• Image Processing– the application of techniques to modify orinterpret existing pictures– computer graphics is the use of a computer tocreate a picture– both disciplines are often combined in manyapplications, e.g. computer-aided surgery
  • 16. 1/2 - 16Related Disciplines• Human-Computer Interaction– graphical interfaces are now very common– WIMP concept• Window manager• Icons to represent processing options• Menus are textual descriptions of options• Pointers, e.g. mouse, are used for selection
  • 17. 1/2 - 17An Historical Perspective• Display of data on plotters and CRTs– first simple pictures generated in 1950(MIT’s Whirlwind I computer)– slow progress over the 1950s (batch systems)• Interactive computer graphics– Sutherland’s Ph.D. thesis (1962) - Sketchpad• Large research projects (The Golden Age)– General Motors, Lockheed Aircraft, MIT
  • 18. 1/2 - 18An Historical Perspective• Research bears fruit in the 1970s– still a small, specialized field– hardware expensive, software difficult to use• The advent of the Personal Computer (’80s)– built-in raster graphics displays– mass-produced, less expensive• The desktop concept
  • 19. 1/2 - 19Graphics Standards• Aim: application-program portability– isolate the programmer from the real devices– also results in “Programmer portability”• CORE Standard (1977 & 1979)• Graphical Kernel System (1985) - GKS• 3D-GKS (1988)• Programmer’s Hierarchical InteractiveGraphics System (1988) - PHIGS