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Lectures1 2


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Lectures1 2

  1. 1. Interaction & VisualisationA 12-week ModuleEur Ing Dr Peter NichollSchool of Computing & Mathematical Sciences
  2. 2. 1/2 - 2Contact Details•• Office16E08• TelephoneFrom outside: 028 9036 8910 (Internally: 8910)Mobile: 07967144854 or #6500• SecretaryMiss Sharon Kelly, 16J19
  3. 3. 1/2 - 3Course Texts• Required reading– Computer Graphics (2nd edition), D. Hearn &M.P. Baker, pub. Prentice-Hall, 1994/7(ISBN 0-13-161530-0)• Recommended reading– Introduction to Computer Graphics, Foley, VanDam, et. al., pub. Addison-Wesley, 1994– 3D Computer Graphics, A. Watt, pub.Addison-Wesley, 1994
  4. 4. 1/2 - 4Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics– Historical perspective– Application areas– Graphics standards– Graphics software
  5. 5. 1/2 - 5Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics• Hardware & Software Support– Raster versus vector graphics– Picture encoding techniques– Display devices and hard copy
  6. 6. 1/2 - 6Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics• Hardware & Software Support• Clipping in 2 Dimensions– Lines and polygons– Windows and simple transformations– Co-ordinate systems– Reflections, shears and composition
  7. 7. 1/2 - 7Module Content• Introduction to Computer Graphics• Hardware & Software Support• Clipping in 2 Dimensions• Scan Conversion– Line drawing algorithms– Circle generating algorithms– Scan conversion of polygons– Aliasing and anti-aliasing methods
  8. 8. Lectures One & TwoIntroduction to Computer Graphics& An Historical Perspective
  9. 9. 1/2 - 9Application Areas: CAD• Computer-Aided Design– buildings, automobiles, aircraft, textiles,computers, spacecraft, watercraft– allows ‘what if’ investigation– designs can be animated– can be incorporated into virtual reality systems– final appearance - shading, lighting, in-situ– feed into computer-aided manufacture (CAM)
  10. 10. 1/2 - 10Application Areas: Presentations• Presentation graphics– illustrations for reports– summarise data– production of 35mm slides and transparencies– project management, e.g. time charts
  11. 11. 1/2 - 11Application Areas: Art• Computer Art– paintbrush software– modelling– texture mapping– mathematical art, e.g. fractals– desktop publishing (DTP)– logo design
  12. 12. 1/2 - 12Application Areas:Entertainment• Motion pictures / music videos / TV shows– graphics scenes by themselves– graphics objects combined with actors• Morphing– transformation of one person / object intoanother
  13. 13. 1/2 - 13Application Areas: Education• Education and Training– Models of physical, financial and economicsystems– Simulators
  14. 14. 1/2 - 14Application Areas: Visualisation• Aids analysis of large amounts of data– colour coding, contour plots, surface rendering– examples: airflow over a wing, minimal surfacefunctions• Aids the study of the behaviour of certainprocesses– example: animation of the growth of a corn ear
  15. 15. 1/2 - 15Related Disciplines• Image Processing– the application of techniques to modify orinterpret existing pictures– computer graphics is the use of a computer tocreate a picture– both disciplines are often combined in manyapplications, e.g. computer-aided surgery
  16. 16. 1/2 - 16Related Disciplines• Human-Computer Interaction– graphical interfaces are now very common– WIMP concept• Window manager• Icons to represent processing options• Menus are textual descriptions of options• Pointers, e.g. mouse, are used for selection
  17. 17. 1/2 - 17An Historical Perspective• Display of data on plotters and CRTs– first simple pictures generated in 1950(MIT’s Whirlwind I computer)– slow progress over the 1950s (batch systems)• Interactive computer graphics– Sutherland’s Ph.D. thesis (1962) - Sketchpad• Large research projects (The Golden Age)– General Motors, Lockheed Aircraft, MIT
  18. 18. 1/2 - 18An Historical Perspective• Research bears fruit in the 1970s– still a small, specialized field– hardware expensive, software difficult to use• The advent of the Personal Computer (’80s)– built-in raster graphics displays– mass-produced, less expensive• The desktop concept
  19. 19. 1/2 - 19Graphics Standards• Aim: application-program portability– isolate the programmer from the real devices– also results in “Programmer portability”• CORE Standard (1977 & 1979)• Graphical Kernel System (1985) - GKS• 3D-GKS (1988)• Programmer’s Hierarchical InteractiveGraphics System (1988) - PHIGS