OUTLINEIntroduction: What do you understandby modal verb?Main modal verbs in English and theirdifferent uses. (Main ideas)Detailed explanation: How to includemodals in sentences?Exemplification
Introduction: What do you understandby modal verb? They act as an auxiliary verb in verb phrases ( I cango) The form does not vary (*He cans go) – can/could They precede the negative particle in not negation (Icannot go) They precede the subject in yes-no questions (Canyou go?) They can be followed by an infinitive without to (*Hecan to go) They express stance meanings, related to possibility,necessity, obligation etc.
Main modal verbs in English andtheir different uses.Meanings ModalsPermission/ possibility/abilityCan, couldObligation/ necessity/adviseMust, have to, should
Detailed explanation: How toinclude modals in sentences?Affirmative: Subject + modal + infinitive ofthe main verb (without to)Negative: It is formed in the same way thanthe affirmative structure but the negativeparticle is added to the modal verb. Modalverb + (not/ n’t)Interrogative: Modal + subject + main verbin infinitive form. (without to)Short answers: subject pronoun + modal/modal +(n’t)
Attention!!*HAVE TO/ DON’T HAVE TO Affirmative: subject + have/ has to + main verb(inf.) Negative: subject + don’t/ doesn’t + have to +main verb (inf.) Interrogative: Do/Does + subject + have to +main verb (inf.) Short answers: subject pronoun + do/does ordon’t/ doesn’t
Exemplification Can expresses ability, possibility, permissionand requests. (cannot/can’t)I can jump one and a half metre high.You can pass the exam the next year if you want.Can she come with me to the party mum?Can you lend me your student’s book? I need it fortaking some photocopies.
Exemplification Could expresses ability and possibility in thepast. (could not/ couldn’t)Could he walk for so many hours without rest? Hebehaved like a superman.She could go through the river, but…her boat is nothere today. Could expresses politeness when referring tothe present: Could I take some fruit?
Exemplification Must and have to express obligation ornecessity.You must read the book for tomorrow, you have todo it if you want not to get a bad mark. Mustn’t expresses prohibition. (must not)Children in the camp mustn’t go through the riveralone! It is too dangerous!
Do you know the differencebetween ‘must’ and ‘have to’?‘You must go to school’‘Now I can’t my doggy, Ihave to go to school’
Exemplification Don’t have to expresses lack of obligation ornecessity.You don’t have to invite him if you don’t want to,but he is your cousin! Should is used for giving advice. (should not/shouldn’t)If I were you, I wouldn’t invite him. You shouldn’tinvite him. What he did yesterday was horrible.(anger)
Now it is your turn…. Now, if everything is clear enough youshould be able to do the following activity:Imagine that one of your classmates has not cometo class today and you want to explain to him/herwhat you have done during the lesson in order notto be too behind with his/her work. How would youdo that?
If you have been able tosuccessfully carry out thelast activity…Congratulations!!!