Avoid Damaging Repair Practices --- focus on the slide and say no more. Some of what we repair is the result of the handiwork of well-intentioned book repair staff of the past. We want to prevent future book repair staff from having to correct problems we cause today. We can do this by following a few simple principles: Use only non-damaging supplies and materials in repair such as alkaline papers, pH neutral adhesives, inert plastics. Use reversible techniques whenever possible – methyl cellulose and wheat paste Do not apply a treatment greater or weaker than the problem . Use mending materials that approximate the strength and character of the item to be repaired (mending tapes are too strong). Show example of book repaired with duct tape. A too strong repair will cause more breakage in other areas. Too weak will ensure the item comes back to the repair unit therefore wasting time and resources.
Important terminology to know esp., when buying commercial supplies “ Important to know terminology esp., when buying commercial supplies What information do these terms convey? “ archival quality” - No standards for the use of this word. totally meaningless, suggests a material is long lasting or stable, can be misused by vendors “ acid free” - a little more information, implies that the product has a pH of 7.0 or higher. However, could be alkaline, neutral - no way of knowing. Not specific enough. Does not guarantee product will stay acid free. “ buffered or alkaline buffered” - an alkaline substance such as calcium carbonate has been added to a paper product to slow the attack of acids. Neutralizes acids released from materials it comes in contact with, 2%, called acid migration Alkaline buffered storage materials used in libraries and archives typically have a pH above 7 and below 9 . “ lignin” - a substance found in all plant matter, causes deterioration in paper, ground wood paper is very high in lignin. . It is not removed in the production of mechanical pulp, but it is best removed by using chemical process. a substance found in all plant matter, causes deterioration in paper, ground wood paper is very high in lignin. “ lig-free” - low lignin content is important for storage materials for permanently valuable materials. (about 0.3% lignin) *PH? – In chemistry, pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution, indicating acidity or alkalinity. In chemistry, acid is a substance capable of forming hydrogen (H+) ions when dissolved in water. Acids can damage cellulose in paper, board and cloth by means of hydrolysis. Acids can be introduced during manufacturing. It may be present in raw material as well. Acids may be introduced by migration from acid material or from atmospheric pollution. migration . *** Alkali- In Chemistry, it is a substance capable of forming hydroxyl (OH-) ions when dissolved in water. Alkaline compounds may be added to materials to neutralize acids or as an alkaline reserve or buffer for the purpose of counteracting acids which may form in the future.
There are standards set by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and NISO (The National Information Standards Organization). ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 standard for permanent paper. Significance of this slide is to show you the symbol for permanence. Sometimes it is in a cicrle. This permanence sign means 100 yrs or more. Resources available to you “ Sources of Products and Services” thru solinet vendor pages Compare types of Catalogs (Lg vs. specialized) Catalogs-Gaylord, University Products, Light Impressions, Talas, Conservation Resources International. Kit list of supplies and tools - on resource page
Adhesives Want a strong adhesive, flexible over time, does not stain or brittle over time. An adhesive used on an object of permanent value must be reversible or removable with out damaging the object. **Q- Have you seen adhesives on new acquisitions – books falling apart before they even hit the shelves? Adhesives to watch out for: - animal glues - made from animal products, breaks down quickly, stains, not flexible, and very hard to remove, can be irreversible. - hot melt glues: epoxy adhesives like rubber cement-will stain, post-its and glue sticks. Four types of adhesives we’ll be using during this workshop: Polyvinyl Acetate - white, pH neutral adhesive. Strong bond, remains flexible over time, dries quickly. Water soluble when liquid, not easily reversible when dry. Best for repairs on non-rare, non- original materials, when reversibility is not a factor. Long shelf life. Be wary of ‘white glue,’ book binders glue Look for PVA manufactured by companies listed in our supply list—they stake their reputation on making appropriate materials—not all companies do… Methyl Cellulose - dry synthetic adhesive. It dries slowly, clear and is flexible and reversible. Mix with water, no cooking. Not an extremely strong bond. Works well when mixed with PVA. Long shelf life. PVA/ methyl cellulose mixture - dries slower that straight PVA, better working properties. Wheat Starch Paste - preferred adhesive by conservators for Japanese paper applications. Reversible, strong bond, requires cooking. Flexibility depends on thickness of application. Pre-cooked paste is quick and almost as strong. Short shelf life. Methyl cellulose, wheat starch paste - All have adv. and disadv. for different repairs and have different strengths and weaknesses. "Time put into repairs done with poor quality materials is wasted as repairs will not hold and can cause further damage the book. ** SHOW SAMPLES OF CLOTH…. Cloth Show samples -woven fabrics, usually cotton, their names refer to the weave or finish linen has a linen look -Buckram (D-F grade) is heavier, stronger weight than c cloth Starch filled cloth used in past, books with this cloth are more susceptible to pest problems and attract mold –not widely available anymore BookMakers International, Ltd., TALAS, Hiromi Paper International, Inc. are some of the few suppliers of Starch filled Cloth at this time. It’s only available in large rolls. Supplies are limited. Polyester-cotton blend with acrylic coating used today in library binding—known as Conservation Buckram Group F Buckram (heavy woven fabric, thinner and stronger then buckram used years ago—will be hard to work with—more like what bindery uses) C & C-1 cloth (thinner, used for lighter volumes) Proxylin impregnated c-cloth bad for you All have advantages and disadvantages. Use c-cloth on lighter thinner books. Some coated buckram is difficult to work with or require longer drying time for the adhesives. Watch out for vinyl coatings (Polyvinyl chloride-PVC's) and those with adhesive on the back. These may be ok for material that will be weeded out of the collection within a few years, Public library collections for example. Book tapes will have “cold flow.” Not as strong bond. The adhesive will flow out from under the cloth and stick to surrounding materials, thus attracting dirt. * Cheaper to order in higher quantities. Buy in smaller quantity first to confirm what types of material you like to use. * Always order for quality not just expendability and attractiveness * Archival doesn’t necessarily mean good quality. Be careful what you read in catalogs. * Always order in detail, know what to ask. Don’t hesitate to ask for specifications of materials to verify what are in the products, if not specified in the catalog. Ex: Bookmaker’s Glue
Supplies (Paper, Plastic, Adhesives, and Cloth) Paper - Acid free or alkaline buffered Remember earlier discussion about the terms: Permanence (chemical stability) and Durability (physical strength). Paper comes in different weights, textures, and thicknesses, colors. Choose what you work best with. Your kit has several different types of paper, will go over in kit. [Japanese Papers - unique; strong, long fibers but thin and light weight. Kizukishi - cream color, lighter weight Sekishu - white, heavier weight, Endsheets - 80 lb. text weight paper, Blotter - very absorbent, thick but not dense cotton fibre, Heat set tissue: Barcham Green Lens tissue coated on one side with a mixture of two acrylic resins. Reversible with ethanol. Especially useful for mending where have water-soluble inks or coated paper. Check all paper material with a pH pen to verify quality **Show pH pen from Abby Know which way you want your grain long or short grain for ordering- we will go over later in skills.} Three plastics: Polyester- is common name for the plastic polyethylene terephthalate. Characteristics are: transparency, lack of color, high tensile strength and chemically stable (when made with no coatings or additives). Used in sheet form or film form to make folders, encapsulations, book jackets and adhesives. Trade names are Mylar D and Melinex. --- inert material - no plasticizers or other additives. Polyethylene and polypropylene – in its pure form, a chemically stable plastic material. Used in film form to make sleeves for photographic material and other uses. Cheaper alternative is polyester film. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) or vinyl . It is not chemically stable. Can emit acidic components which damage cellulose material. Chemicals called plasticizers are also used to make PVC more flexible. These damage library materials. ** Show PVC samples
See “Implementing a Book Repair and Treatment Program “ by Milevski and Nainis on listed on Bibliography . Great article regarding setting up book repair program Justify the book repair operation. containing survey results with justification, Compare costs of repair like we saw earlier to costs of commercial binding or replacement—use the savings to help justify the need for a program Acquire space, equipment, and supplies. Look on Ebay, flea markets, donations, consortium buying Develop job descriptions, org. charts, budgets with equipment and supply costs. Workflow or selection for book repair; who will be involved? What is required from other people and other departments (cataloging, library binding)?
Job descriptions can be found on COOL-see URL on bib, Personnel & Training Training Resources—Be careful what you use—not all training tools teach good techniques or techniques appropriate for long-term retention—Jane Greenfield’s manual listed in bibliography is a good source Note Dexterity indicator in pkt—Check with Human Resources to make sure you can give this test—might be able to only give it after you have hired individual—indication of their skills Videos for rent by SOLINET & Additional Workshops Different types of Manuals--create your own based on your situation ( see example ) Steps in Training Give understanding of why repairs are necessary & appreciation of the value of good repairs Discuss context -- how item reached state of disrepair, what treatment decision is made and why. Teach technicians one procedure at a time , when mastered move on to more complex procedures Demonstrate procedure and explain thoroughly, step-by-step. Assign the trainee to do the repair on a number of items, perhaps in batch mode, with regular observation by supervisor. Tips Encourage discussion & questions, Discuss mistakes openly and constructively Be available so staff can come to you when they are unsure about a treatment. Expect mistakes from new staff Practice new techniques on discards before incorporating them into the regular routine. After a reasonable period, set production standards based on weekly or monthly work in one procedure. From beginning, encourage staff to produce, but make sure standards are reasonable and increased when skills improve. May set aside a block of time during the week to reinforce training or demonstrate more complicated repairs
Here’s an example of a station with both full rolls and precut cloth stored on movable cart. Moveable cart can transport items from bulk storage. For other examples of how to set up space, you can get ideas by visiting facilities in other libraries or checking illustrations in repair manuals. Also, many preservation depts have websites with pictures of their labspace.
1. Fundamentals of
LYRASIS Preservation Services
Funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the
Humanities, division of Preservation and Access.
2. LYRASIS Preservation Services
• Education and training: full-day workshops, live
online and self-paced classes.
• Information and referral: call us with your
• Loan services: we have environmental monitoring
equipment available for loan.
• Publications: all types of preservation publications,
downloadable for free.
• Disaster assistance: We are available 24/7 to assist
• Consulting: personalized assistance for your specific
• This short class is intended to introduce
participants to some concepts before the
LYRASIS 2-day class, Fundamentals of
– For information on registering for the class
or other Preservation classes available from
LYRASIS, please go to:
4. Class Objectives
• Learn the anatomy of the basic 20th
• Introduce decision making criteria for book
repair, as not everything can (or should!)
be repaired in house.
• Understand what to look for in quality,
non-damaging supplies and materials.
• Introduce the basics of organizing and
managing a repair unit.
5. What can a book repair program
do for me?
• Extends the useable life and Improves the
overall condition of a collection.
• Corrects damage incurred through poor
manufacture, use, abuse and aging.
• Reduces the time materials are out of
• Materials repaired in-house quickly can
reduce time out of circulation as opposed to
6. What can a book repair
program do for me?
• Reduces number of books needing
commercial binding, therefore saving your
• ($6-12 to rebind, versus a hinge tighten or
spine replacement: ranging from $0.25 - $3.00
including labor & material.)
• Sends a positive message to patrons: they
see that you care, and they will take care of
the collections material.
7. Preservation Activities
Preservation is a combination of
prospective (proactive) and
retrospective (reactive) activities. It
is any activity that is undertaken to
ensure the longevity of material.
You are probably doing some of
these actions and may not have
realized they are “preservation
8. • Collections conservation, book repair,
conservation treatment (in-house or contract).
– Conservation is an activity performed on an item
by a trained conservator. So, conservation is when
there is physical intervention directly affecting the
– Book repair is preventive because it anticipates
potential damage, so to continue providing
information to patrons. Many repairs, such as
hinge tightening, prevent more severe damage
from occurring, prolonging the need for commercial
rebinding or replacement.
Preservation Activities (continued)
9. • Commercial library binding
– As you prep items going to the bindery, you might do
repairs such as tip-in, page mends and endsheets.
By doing these repairs, you reduce binding costs
and assure a quality end product.
• Staff and user education
– Educate users about proper care and handling of
materials. Many institutions have food and drink
policies, proper photocopy procedures, etc.
– Microfilming, digitization, preservation photocopying
Preservation Activities (continued)
10. • Emergency preparedness
– Do you have a disaster plan in place?
– Some resources from LYRASIS:
• Environmental monitoring
– Gather comprehensive data about the storage
environment and compare with building systems.
• Pest management
– Keep your building clean, take trash out daily,
segregate food and drink away from collections
Preservation Activities (continued)
11. • SO book repair, the focus of this class, is just one
component of an overall preservation & collections
maintenance program within a library. To DO
Preservation doesn’t necessarily require that you
launch new programs. -just do current activities
differently -with an eye to their long term impact on
collections, a matter of a change in perspective.
– Library preservation programs range in size from an
individual given part time responsibility among other
duties to a full scale program with a budget, a PA, and
• The target of a repair program should be
heavily used, non-rare, modern volumes.
– (Older volumes may be less appropriate for standard book repair,
due to intrinsic or historic value these can be further protected
with an enclosure or taken to a conservator.)
12. Threats to Collections
chemical and physical composition
• Items in collections are complex;
composed of organic and inorganic
materials that will deteriorate at different
rates over time. (board, cloth, leather,
glues, thread, etc)
• Design and construction of an item is vital
as well - this could be true for a book as
well as cd’s and other media.
13. • Examples critical to collections are temperature,
RH, light, proper storage furniture, and good
housekeeping. How do you ensure you have the
• Know the appropriate environment for storage of
library and archival material:
• You can monitor the collections’ environment by
using environmental monitoring equipment such as
hygrothermographs or data loggers
Threats to Collections
Environment and storage
14. Threats to Collections
• Use and handling of a collection is
another threat – The frequent use and
poor handling of items by staff and
patrons can cause damage. Poor repair
practices, and poor handling in
transportation can also accelerate
15. Avoid Damaging Repair Practices
• Some of what we repair is the result of the
handiwork of well-intentioned book repair
staff of the past. We want to prevent
future book repair staff from having to
correct problems we cause today. We
can do this by following a few simple
16. Avoid Damaging Repair Practices
• Do not apply a treatment greater or weaker than
the problem. Use mending materials that
approximate the strength and character of the item
to be repaired. A too strong repair will cause more
breakage in other areas. Too weak will ensure the
item comes back to the repair unit, therefore wasting
time and resources.
• Use only non-damaging supplies and materials in
repair such as alkaline papers, pH neutral
adhesives, and inert plastics.
17. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive
• Tape is composed of two parts: the carrier (some type
of plastic, paper or cloth) and the adhesive (commonly
rubber or acrylic).
• Cold flow is a characteristic of pressure sensitive tapes.
This means the adhesive tends to flow beyond edges of
the carrier. It attracts dust as the edges become sticky,
and can cause materials in proximity to stick together.
18. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive
• Damaging, non-permanent materials- Most plastics
degrade and cause damage, such as “scotch tape” that will
shrink and yellow as it ages. Eventually the backing will
peel off and you are left with sticky, brown tape residue.
This is very difficult to remove without solvents which could
be harmful to paper. In the past most tapes had a rubber
based adhesive. Rubber adhesives are particularly
damaging (masking tapes are still rubber). Rubber
adhesives give off acids as they degrade that break down
paper, they discolor and cause staining. Today most
adhesives are acrylic. Acrylic based adhesives tend to be
more stable, however, composition varies widely, and they
are not reversible without chemicals.
19. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive
• Tape DOES NOT repair structural problems.
When a spine is damaged it often means the
internal hinge is damaged, placing tape on the
spine doesn’t do anything, except inhibit
movement and flexibility of the spine, and cause
breakage in other areas.
• It is very difficult to remove once applied, and
can cause permanent damage.
20. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive
• Exception: Pressure sensitive tapes are
easy to use and quick. The are “OK” for
items regularly superseded, outdated and
discarded. However, be aware that these
repairs will not hold up to heavy use.
21. Anatomy of a book
• To understand how to properly repair a
book, it is important to understand all the
book parts and pieces.
• Knowledge of book construction is essential
to understanding how mishandling and poor
repairs affects the physical operation of a
– Let’s take a look into the anatomy of a book
and how it is constructed…
• The front and
made of heavy
book board or
card stock in
the case of
• The spine of the
spine of the
24. BookStructure • The joint area, (also
known as the hinge
or groove) is the
interior or exterior
point on a book
where the cover
meets the spine.
Inside, it's where the
flyleaf (front free
endpaper) meets the
endpaper which is
pasted to the inside
cover of the book).
25. Book Structure
• The top edge
of the boards,
spine, and text
block when a
book is upright
on a shelf is
26. Book Structure • The unbound
edge of the
may have gilded
(gold) or painted
present, tabs or a
thumb index are
affixed to the
27. Book Structure
• The bottom
edge of the
and text block
that the book
rests on when
it is sitting
upright on a
shelf is the tail.
28. Book Structure
• Endpapers are
found at the
very front and
back of the
play a critical
part in holding
29. Book Structure
the part of the
paper that is
glued to the
30. Book Structure
• Fly leaf –the
loose part of
31. Book Structure
• Hinge – is the
inner margin of
area closest to
the spine is also
“gutter” of the
referring to the
32. Book Structure
• Headcap- the
of the spine.
33. Book Structure
• Headband- a
at the head
and tail of the
34. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see.
inner part of
35. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see.
• The inlay
spine of the
case can be
36. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see.
• The board
37. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see.
38. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see.
• The super is
the spine of
the book and
the case. The
39. • It is important to note that the only thing that holds a
textblock in the covers in contemporary books is the
pastedown part of the endsheet, and the super-
(sometimes very weak and cheap, and sometimes
non-existent!). These two connections hold the
weight of the text block into the case.
• This is why proper shelving and care for books is so
important. If materials are not cared for properly they
can easily break and tear in these areas!
40. BookStructure • Bindings
Some books are sewn thru
the groupings of folded
sheets, called signatures.
In sewn bindings, you
should be able to visibly see
the signatures, and you will
find thread in the center of
41. BookStructure • Bindings
Other books are not sewn and
have glued bindings. Commonly
referred to as “double fan”, a
gathering of loose pages are run
over a roller ("fanning" the pages)
to apply a thin layer of glue to
each page edge. This is then
done in the opposite direction so
a small amount of glue adheres
the pages together at the spine.
However, certain types of paper
do not hold adhesive well, and
with wear and tear, the pages
can come loose.
42. Identification of material
There are two common ways to identify collections that may
be in need of repair. Don’t go through stacks item by item!
• Circulation, new acquisitions, shelvers,
use for exhibits, gifts.
• Identify a portion of the collection to focus
on (reference collection or reserves, for
instance. They get heavy use, but do not
43. Consider two levels of decision making.
• Level 1 decisions are made by circulation staff
as returned books are checked in. Books that
are damaged are routed to preservation for
• Level 2 decisions (which repair) or other
appropriate options are made by preservation
staff, curators or subject specialists.
Identification of material
44. • The key here is that the person with the
knowledge of the in-house skill level should be
making the final decision. If someone wants a
repair done and it is outside your training and
skill level, DON’T DO IT. You could cause more
harm than good. Protect the material with an
enclosure or send to commercial bindery or a
conservator, depending on the material.
Identification of material
• Collection significance- How important is the
item to the collection?
• Patterns of use- How is the material used?
• Condition of the item- Is the book brittle? Is
the structure stable? If the material is not
stable, DO NOT attempt to repair it.
• Is the item worth the staff time and money?
Calculate the value of the item and the time it
would take for you to repair it. Is it worth it?
46. The Universe of Options
• Repair: is it a torn page or something you have
the knowledge to repair?
• Reformat: for access of brittle material or
damaged beyond repair.
– microfilm, preservation photocopy, digitization
• Re-house: build an enclosure for items outside of
repair skills or for items that might cost too much
money to repair or rebind.
47. The Universe of Options
• Commercial bind: for heavily used materials in
• Return to shelf as is: some materials have slight
damage that could circulate more times before
• Purchase another copy: say you have a
damaged copy of a popular novel…
• Transfer to limited access: example: an out of
print art book to prevent from damage- make it
non-circulating, used only in-house.
48. Repair Cost Estimates
REPAIR Materials Labor* Time* Total
Hinge Tightening N/A N/A 5 min. $.50
Endsheet $.15 $2.55 15 min. $2.70
Spine Repl. $.11 $5.10 30 min. $5.21
Recase-Orig. Cover $.28 $7.65 45 min. $7.93
Phase Box $3.69 $5.10 30 min. $8.75
Wrapper $1.68 $2.55 15 min. $4.23
Drop Spine Box $3.00 $20.00 2 hrs. $23.00
* Time based on batch production * Labor estimated at $10/hour
* Cost is per item and excludes equipment
• You have to compute your own costs according to your institutions labor costs,
overhead, etc. These costs are based upon batch processing and assumed
proficiency. At first, it may take you a lot longer to complete repairs.
49. The maze of terminology
• “Archival quality”
• “Alkaline buffered”
• “Lignin” and “lignin-free”
50. ANSI / NISO Z39.48
Standard for Permanent Paper
– Alkaline-buffered and pH neutral
– Use polyester, polyethylene, or
– (Mylar, Mellinex, Tyvek, or Reemay)
53. Implementing a Book Repair
• Justify the book repair operation.
• Acquire space, equipment, and supplies.
• Develop job descriptions and show where
book repair fits within the organization.
• Establish workflow.
54. Repair Unit
• How will the material move through the
workflow? Focus on identification of material,
sorting of material, determining treatment
options, and keeping statistics— Don’t take
material if you don’t have time to repair them!
Use chart and memos to convey your workflow
Use flags to help route material from person to
person and to help determine where it has
been, where it is going, where it should end up-
it--OHD Show-flags in pkt- who sent it and
where it should be returned, who did the repair
55. Repair Unit
• How will the damaged material be organized? Sort by
receipt date or type of repair or size on proper
shelving.This makes it easier for batch work.
• Who will perform the standardized repair techniques?
know the strengths of your technicians or your workers
--depends on yourturnaround time goals, the size of your
backlog, the complexity of the repairs done in the unit,
Who is better at certain techniques. Train and provide
adequate equipment and supplies,
for example precut materials or construct jigs to aid in
• Repair staff need to know what they should not try to fix.
Clear decision is needed about who decides what to
repair in-house, what not to.
56. Repair Unit
• What type of statistics will you keep?
• Neededto gauge productivity, to re-affirm value of the
work being done to the administration, to justify the need
for further staff, equipment, materials
• Some gather by type of treatment, but is difficult to
classify treatment, some items receive more than one;
Some gather by number of items treated, but if do many
types of repairs, it is difficult to indicate complexity of
repairs and how much repair is given to any single item.
Combination of both is good, simplicity is best. There are
some examples in your handout of statistic sheets.
57. Space: Three Basic Needs
• Adequate space for work and storage
– Space should be dedicated and in a secure
• Light : Daylight or incandescent
– Task lighting is very helpful and reduces eye
• Water and a sink
– Water for cleaning bushes and surfaces and
distilled water for making glue and tearing
58. Book repair station layout
• The following pictures illustrate a few book
repair stations and tools at different
– Note The amount of space per person. Ideally 5-
6 foot length and 2-3 foot depth.
– Also note:
• Task lighting
• Use of drawers and shelving to hold necessary materials
• Clean smooth work surfaces
• Jars or cans to hold tools
• Pegboard to hold rulers, Japanese paper, and other small items
59. Custom built work stations with pegboard wall
60. Cube work station
61. Desk work station
62. Storage of endsheets, spines, and bookcloth
63. Storage of rolled bookcloth
64. Equipment and Tools
• We can discuss this more in class, but
some typical equipment would be
• Board shears or cutter
• There can be some less expensive, safe solutions
than having to buy an expensive cutter.
• Can be a worthy investment if you begin working in
• Hand tools
• Ideally, everyone will have their own set. Buy quality
materials and many tools will be a one-time
65. Board shear ($$$$)
66. Paper cutter, Kutrimmer brand ($$$)
67. Louet cutting guide (from Talas) ($$)
68. Cutting mats, straight edge, and bar clamps ($)
69. A cast iron book press
70. Contact Information