Preservation and conservation
Presented By -
Preservation is a term used for maintaining the
integrity of documents deals with-
• Maintenance of resources
• To prevent library material from decaying or
• To keep in perfect or unaltered condition;
Conservation includes the specific policies and
practices involved in -
• Treatment of the physical items to extend their
• To repair
• Preservation and restoration from loss, damage,
Different between preservation and
I. Deals with
II. Prevent library
material from spoiling
I. Deals with treatment
of physical items to
II. Preservation and
Proper Shelving of collection
• Choosing shelves -
Using too narrow/too shallow shelves will
result in items being damaged.
One of the most important ways that library staff can
prevent damage by arranging book properly on shelf.
I. Support each
shelf with a
II. Push it in firmly,
but not too tight,
so that books can
be easily removed.
Shelving alone is not enough!
• Physical storage environment also direct
impact on material
– Temperature & Relative Humidity (RH)
– Light & Lighting
– Atmospheric Pollution
– Mould & Pest Control
Temperature & Relative Humidity (RH)
High temperature, high amount of humidity and
inconstancy temperature in stack is cause of damage
Avoidance of too frequent changes in temperature
and humidity in the stack area
Relative Humidity (RH) depend on temperature.
Temperature & Relative Humidity (RH)
• Temperature should between 22°- 25° C and
relative humidity between 45% - 55%
constitute the most suitable for storing of
• This can be achieved only by air conditioning.
Maintenance of cool, dry atmosphere
Light & Lighting
• Long exposure to strong light, especially sun
light containing ultraviolet radiations Causes
deterioration of paper, binding, film material,
and fading of the image,
• High energy light range from 300-400 nm
(nanometer), blue and indigo lights are most
• Storage areas should be kept dark, e.g. switch
off lights when no one is at work.
• Lighting in Reading Room & Exhibition Hall
should be UV-filtered.
Deterioration of archives caused by impurities in the
air (outdoor and indoor) is difficult to detect, but still
measurable with special devices. Common air
• such as Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
• Nitrogen Oxides, (NO, NO2)
• Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
• Dust Particles
• Use ventilation and Air-condition in building to
Mould and Pest Control
• The most effective way to prevent insect damage is
to stop them from entering repository space – many
were hidden in the archives
• Good housekeeping helps – regular inspection by
professional pest control experts, use of sticky traps
to detect presence and movement of insects
Greatest risk is in the hands of staff and users,
although it may be due to ignorance.
Should have follow rules –
I. No writing on archives
II. No drinks and food in the reading room and
Staff and user must be educated to understand
the vulnerability of the materials which they
Please avoid eating and drinking
near library materials. This can
attract vermin and insects.
Against theft and natural disaster like-
For thief can use CCTV Camera & security guard.
• Fire and
Example..... affected by flood
• On July 28, 1997, Colorado State University
was affected by a devastating flood that swept
through campus and caused damages of $100
Example..... affected by fire
Egyptian Scientific Institution is located in Cairo. It was
established in 1798 by Napoleon Bonaparte . It was
set on fire on 17 December 2011. only 30,000 have
been saved of a total of 200,000.
• a properly constructed building
• Know see water level
• Use fire extinguishing gases
• Keep contact with weather predictor
• Keep contact with nearest fire Brigade office
• Conservation is primarily concerned with the
remedial treatments of already damaged or
Two major process of conservation –
Books need repair or rebinding
when They have
loose or torn
Books need repair
or rebinding when
The spine is
torn or broken
Pages are loose
• If the books are infested by insects, bacteria, moulds
and fungus, the infestation can be eliminated by
fumigation process. The infested materials should be
separated from the collection and treated promptly.
Before replacing the fumigated books on the shelves,
the area where the infestation had occurred, should
be disinfected thoroughly.
PRACTICAL WORK IN C.LAB
A. Selection of material:-
selection should be those printed material which are rare and
going to damage soon.
B. Digitization and photocopy:-
Before sending any material to conservation lab should be make
digitized and photocopy. At the time processing of conservation
any part of pages may be loss; to keep an original copy of that
material digitization is required as a proof.
C. Fumigation:- Next steps is fumigation, is the process of
removing insects. In fumigation process thyemol chemical are
used to remove insect.
D. Debinding:- Debinding is the process of opening binding and
makes it loose.
E. Pages arrange:- Then pages should be arranged in a sequential
F. Pagination:- Pagination is the process of putting number on
pages for arranging in a sequential manner.
G. Deacidification:- When any material is going to damage or
become brittle and yellow may contain acid, so it should be make
acid free by deacidification process. It may be done sinking in
either simple water or lime water. Ph value should be between10-
H. Lamination:- For lamination process generally used Japani tissue
paper. Lamination is the process of putting printed paper between
Japani tissue paper.
I. Drying:- After lamination it should be make dry.
J. Press:- After drying that pages should be pressed. Press is the process
of making smooth and thin
K. Cutting:- After pressing it should be cut in a book form.
L. Binding: - Final process is binding.