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Gmp qa and doccumentation by kailash vilegave


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Good Manufacturing Practices.
Basic rules of GMP
Various aspects of GMP.
How do GMP change.
Comparison of GMP.
Quality assurance
Principles of QA
Functions of QA department.
Importance of documentation of records
Important areas of documentation
Components of documentation

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Gmp qa and doccumentation by kailash vilegave

  1. 1. Seminar on… GMP, Quality Assurance, Documentation. Presented by: Mr. Kailash Vilegave Shivajirao S. Jondhle college of Pharmacy Asangaon 1
  2. 2. Contents Good Manufacturing Practices. Basic rules of GMP Various aspects of GMP. How do GMP change. Comparison of GMP. Quality assurance Principles of QA Functions of QA department. Documentation Importance of documentation of records Important areas of documentation Components of documentation References. 2
  3. 3. Good Manufacturing Practices• "GMP" - A set of principles and procedures which, when followed by manufacturers of therapeutic goods, helps ensure that the products manufactured will have the required quality.• Usually see “cGMP” – where c = current, to emphasize that the expectations are dynamic• A basic tenet of GMP is that quality cannot be tested into a batch of product but must be built into each batch of product during all stages of the manufacturing process.• It is designed to minimize the risks involved in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be eliminated through testing the final product. 3
  4. 4. Some of the main risks are– unexpected contamination of products, causing damage to health or even death.– incorrect labels on containers, which could mean that patients receive the wrong medicine.– insufficient or too much active ingredient, resulting in ineffective treatment or adverse effects.Why GMP is important?– A poor quality medicine may contain toxic substances that have been unintentionally added.– A medicine that contains little or none of the claimed ingredient will not have the intended therapeutic effect. 4
  5. 5. • For e.g.• USA - 1937 Sulphanilamide Elixir• Used Diethylene Glycol to suspend drug• 107 deaths due to renal failure – mostly children• Manufacturer fined $26 000• Led to Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 1938 5
  6. 6. Ten Basic Rules of GMP• Be sure that the written instructions before any job is started.• Always guard against labeling errors.• Always follows those instructions EXACTLY with no “cutting corners”• Ensure that the correct material being used.• Ensure that the correct equipment being used, & that is CLEAN.• Prevent contamination & mix up.• Always work accurately & precisely.• Keep thing (including personnel) clean & tidy.• Always be on the look out for mistakes errors and bad practices & report them immediately.• Make clear, accurate records of what has been done & the checks carried out. 6
  7. 7. Various Aspects of GMP Personnel Buildings and facilities Raw materials Equipment and utensils Storage Waste disposal. 7
  8. 8. Personnel• Personnel Qualification: Persons should be qualified with appropriate education. Responsibilities must be specified in writing. Training should be conducted by qualified person.• Personnel Hygiene. Should practice good sanitation and health habits. Should wear clean clothing suitable for manufacturing activity. Must avoid direct contact with intermediates or active ingredients. Smoking, eating, drinking, chewing and storage of food must be restricted. Personnel suffering from infections or any disease should not engaged in activities. 8
  9. 9. Building and Facilities• Design and Construction Must be located, design and constructed to facilitate cleaning, maintenance and operations as appropriate to the type & stage of manufacture. Adequate space for equipment & materials. Premises must be well drained. Flow of materials & personnel should be such that it avoids contamination. Adequate cleaning, washing & toilet facilities. Laboratory areas or operation areas must be separate from production areas. 9
  10. 10. • Utilities• All utilities must be qualified and appropriately monitored.• Adequate ventilation, air filtration & exhaust system must be provided.• If air is re-circulated to production areas measures must be taken.• Permanently installed pipe work must be appropriately identified.• Drains must be of adequate size & must be provided with an air break. Lighting:• Adequate lighting must be provided in all areas.• The fitting of lighting should be done inside the walls to avoid the corner and crevices for microbial contamination 10
  11. 11.  Containment:• Means dedicated production areas, employed in the production of highly sensitizing materials like: steroid, penicillins, and cytotoxic anticancer drugs etc.• This must requires special production area, special equipments and special storage area than the other APIs area to avoid contamination and toxicity. Sewage and Refuse Sanitation and Maintenance 11
  12. 12. Raw Materials• Responsible person should keep an inventory of raw materials & maintain records as per schedule-U• Schedule-U: Records of each raw materials shall be maintained indicating the date of receipt, number, name and address of manufacture/supplier, batch no. quantity received, pack size, date of manufacturing & expiry, if any.• General Controls :• Written procedures for receipt, identification, quarantine, handling.• Manufacturers must have system for evaluating the suppliers of critical materials. 12
  13. 13. • Receipt and Quarantine. Visual inspection for labeling, container damage, broken seals. Before incoming materials are mixed with existing stocks, they should be identified as correct, tested, if appropriate, & released. If bulk deliveries are made in non-dedicated tankers, there should be assurance of cross contamination from tankers. Each container of material should be assigned and identified with a distinctive code, batch, or receipt number. 13
  14. 14. • Sampling and Testing: At least one test to verify the identity of each batch of material. Sample should be representative of the batch of material from which they are taken Sampling should be conducted at defined locations and by procedures. Container should be opened and closed carefully for sampling & they are marked to indicate that sample has been taken. Organisation of raw material is like that first in first out. 14
  15. 15. Equipment and Utensils• Design and Construction: Must be constructed so that surface that contact raw material, intermediates or active ingredients do not alter quality. Should only be used within its qualified operating range. Major equipments and permanently installed processing lines must be appropriately identified. Any substances associated with the operation of the equipment, such as lubricants, heating fluids or coolants, should not contact intermediates or active ingredients. A set of current drawings must be maintained for equipments and critical installations. 15
  16. 16. • Equipment Maintenance and Cleaning. Schedules and procedures must be established. Non dedicated equipments must be cleaned between productions of different materials. Continuous production- cleaned at appropriate intervals.• Calibration: Control, weighing, measuring, monitoring and test equipment must be calibrated according to written procedures. Records of these calibrations are maintained. Equipment that do not meet calibration must not be used 16
  17. 17. Storage• To insure stability of a pharmaceutical preparation for a period of its intended shelf life, the label should contain desired conditions of storage. Storage Specifications Temperature Cold Not to exceed 80c Freezer -100C to –200C Cool 80C to 150C Room temp. 150c to 300c Warm 300c to 400c Excessive heat Above 400c 17
  18. 18. • Ware Housing Procedure: Records of store items should contain following data. Name of the material and manufacturer. Quantity and strength of material. Batch number and control number. Date of manufacture and expiry. Method of dispense and Special precautions as per necessary. 18
  19. 19. Waste Disposal• Pharmaceuticals that should never be used and should always be considered as pharmaceutical waste are: All expired pharmaceuticals All unsealed syrups or eye drops (expired or unexpired) All cold chain damaged unexpired pharmaceuticals that should have been stored in cold chain but were not. (insulin, polypeptide hormones, gamma globulins and vaccines.) All unsealed tubes of creams, ointments etc. (expired or unexpired) 19
  20. 20. • Disposal Methods: Return to donor or manufacturer. Landfill  Highly engineered sanitary landfill  Waste immobilization: Encapsulation.  Waste immobilization: Inertization. Sewer Burning in open containers Chemical decomposition 20
  21. 21. GMP helps boost pharmaceutical export opportunities• Most countries will only accept import and sale of medicines that have been manufactured to internationally recognized GMP.• Governments seeking to promote their countries export of pharmaceuticals can do so by making GMP mandatory for all pharmaceutical production and by training their inspectors in GMP requirements. 21
  22. 22. GMP Covers…• ALL aspects of production; from the starting materials, premises and equipment to the training and personal hygiene of staff.• Detailed, written procedures are essential for each process that could affect the quality of the finished product.• There must be systems to provide documented proof that correct procedures are consistently followed at each step in the manufacturing process - every time a product is made. 22
  23. 23. How Do GMPs Change?GMPs change formally and informally.GMPs are currently undergoing significant changes.Example of formal change: The U.S. medical device GMPs have been completely rewritten, making them more compatible with the ISO-9001 quality document. In fact device GMPs were renamed - FDA now calls them the Quality System Regulation (QSR). 23
  24. 24. Example of informal change:Expectations that inspectors have evolved over time.In the U.S., these changes are communicated by seminars and papers presented by FDA personnel and through agency Guides and Guidelines.One other way industry personnel can keep track of changes in expectations is by watching the FDA-483s (inspectional observations) and Warning Letters issued to firms by the agency. 24
  25. 25. How do GMPs of different countries compare?At a high level, GMPs of various nations are very similar; most require things like:  Equipment and facilities being properly designed, maintained, and cleaned  Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) be written and approved  An independent Quality unit (like Quality Control and/or Quality Assurance)  Well trained personnel and management 25
  26. 26. Quality Assurance• Quality : it can be defined as Fitness for use. Conformance to specifications or to some standard. Ability to fulfill the customers expectations & thereby provide satisfaction. Freedom from deficiencies.• Philip Crosby defines quality as „to meet customers requirements‟• By doing things right first time and every time. 26
  27. 27. • QA is the heart and soul of quality control.• Definition: Activity of providing the evidences needed to establish confidence, among all concerned that the quality function is effectively being followed. QA = QC + GMP• It consist of guaranteeing that a consumer can purchase a product with confidence and enjoy its satisfactory use for a long period.• Need of central quality assurance system. 27
  28. 28. Principles of Quality Assurance• To achieve consumers trust the following principles must be followed: Adopt a 100% consumer first approach & obtain a firm grasp of consumers requirement. Hammer out a clear customer- first philosophy and ensure that everybody from the company president down is concerned with quality. Constantly rotate the quality cycle (the deming cycle) and never stop improving quality. Producers and marketers are responsible for QA. Follow „the next process is your customer‟ 28
  29. 29. Quality Assurance System Organization. Chief Executive of the Company director of the divisionR&D production marketing QA basic manufacture QC lab formulation QC lab third party QC lab 29
  30. 30. Functions Of Quality Assurance DepartmentIssue of batch production records.Review of batch production records.Review of quality control reports.Issue of product release certificates.Shop floor inspection.Upkeep of reference samples.Validations.Preparation & review of SOP‟s.Self inspections.Complaint handling and investigations. 30
  31. 31. Audit preparations.Vendors auditAudit of contract manufacturing unit.Trend charts.Salvaging.Training and development.Documentation.Check samples.Post production stability studies.Product recall. 31
  32. 32.  Issue of Batch Production Records.• The QA dept. issue BPR‟s when the batch is planned for production.• Batch no., signature, date of issue, BPR issue register. Review of batch production records.• All BPR are received by QA immediately after the batch is completed.• QA personnel checks1. Correctness of entries.2. Conformance to manufacturing instructions.3. Occurrence of deviations, if any deviations are found whether it has been made with proper authorization and documentation. 32
  33. 33. 4. Signature in all pages of BPR.5. Presence of dispensing cards.6. Calculation of yields.7. Reconciliation of primary and secondary packing materials.8. Signature of production manager.9. Attachment of in-process reports.10. Attachment of specimens of packing materials. After review of BPR sign & date of review will be written on BPR. Also finished product analysis report, microbiological report and product release certificate will be attached to BPR. 33
  34. 34.  Review of Quality Control Reports.• All finished product analysis report are also received by QA after the analysis is completed by QC.• Thoroughly checked against specifications.• Batch will be released by only after the review of QC reports along with BPR‟s by QA. Issue of product release certificates.• Completed BPR will come to QA from production. If found satisfactory QA person give PRC no. in computer.after this material shifted from FP stores to dispatch center. Then batch will be dispatched to various depots. 34
  35. 35.  Shop Floor Inspection• Inspection consist of judging whether an individual article/lot is defective or nondefective by comparing the test results with an acceptability criterion.• Quality checked by:1. General monitoring.2. Production: a. Rechecking wt. Of dispensed materials. b. Observing processing operations. c. Checking BPR instruction. d. In process check e. Line clearance. f. Collection of in process & finished products. g. Inspection after packing. 35 h. Checking of material/equipment sanitation prior to operations.
  36. 36. 3. Packing: a. line clearance. b. checking of details on first pack. c. frequent in process check. d. random inspection of completed batches. e. checking of completed BPR‟s.4. Deviations.5. Co-ordination 36
  37. 37.  In Process Control.• Parenterals.  fill volume  Clarity inspection. – glass particles – white & black particles. – particles of dust - fibers. • Tablets:  Uniformity in wt.  Hardness  Thickness  Friability  Disintegration test  Blister packing sealing test. 37
  38. 38. • Liquid: fill volume Clarity of washing / washed water.• Aerosols:  Fill wt. Of active drug concentrate  Fill wt of propellants  Pressure  Wt of container  No of doses  Dose evaluation. 38
  39. 39.  Up Keep of Reference Sample.• The quantity sufficient for 2 analysis will be collected & kept in reference room.• Records of date of collection, batch no., quantity, date of manufacture date of expiry are maintained.• These samples are destroyed after 3 months after the expiry period of time. Validation :• “to prove that process works”• Determines process variables & acceptable limits for these variables and accordingly set up appropriate in process controls which specify alert and actions. 39
  40. 40. • Validation is a chain of activities which include Plan/protocol Installation qualification Operation qualification Performance qualification Report Certification Revalidation 40
  41. 41.  Types of Validation Prospective validation. Concurrent validation. Retrospective validation. Equipment validation. Cleaning validation. validation includes all subjects like instruments, personnel, raw and packing materials, equipment design, installation, operation, critical support system ( water, steam, compressed air, inert gases, drainage) manufacturing process, analytical and quality procedures. 41
  42. 42.  Preparation and Review of SOP‟s• Definition of SOP : These are written instructions and procedures for carring out specific operations systematically and in accordance with the cGMP. Self inspection : Complaint handling and investigations. Objective is to investigate thoroughly and impartially regard less of nature &/or source of complaint 42
  43. 43.  Audit preparations. Vendors audit. Audit of contract manufacturing units. Trend charts : These are prepared for various quality and process parameters of all the batches manufactured during a particular year. Salvaging : finished goods are returned to central ware house from various depot due to - Received in soiled and damaged conditions - Completion of shelf life. 43
  44. 44.  Training and Development• Basic principles are- Employee should know what he is supposed to do. Employee should know what is his influence on work. Employee should know result of his own work. Documentation: Check samples: evaluation of test results of check samples will contribute to judgement of quality level within manufacturing unit. Post production stability studies objective is to generate data that supports intended stability during the expiration time of the product and when necessary initiate proper action 44
  45. 45.  Product Recall : It is a speedy and efficient removal of unsatisfactory material from the market and assigning the responsibilities. The following parameters are considered for product recall.1. The health hazards that the user is likely to be exposed to because of product defect.2. The extent of recall i.e. consumer, retail, wholesale, company‟s own stock. 45
  46. 46.  Responsibility of Quality Assurance Assuring that the adopted policies by a company are followed. Serves as contact with regulatory agencies Final authority for product acceptance and rejection Identify and prepare the necessary standard operating procedures relative to the control of quality. During final product release it must be determined that the product meets all the applicable specifications and that it was manufactured according to internal standards & GMP. Major responsibility is a quality monitoring and audit function. 46
  47. 47. Documentation• Document is a paper that provides information especially of an official or legal nature, written report or record.• Documentation is a method of preparing a written material, which describes the process in terms of specifications, instructions etc.• Documentation and records are essential for obtaining accreditation, certification of ISOs and approvals by Federal Bodies. 47
  48. 48.  Importance Of Documentation of Records• Provide working details necessary for manufacturing, packaging and QC.• Reduce the risk of mistakes inherent in verbal communication.• Help in tracing the deviation from the expected yields.• Help in decreasing the batch to batch variations so that the quality of product kept within the limit of acceptability.• Considered as history of batch operations.• Self inspection of procedures in order to achieve better control of operations and improvement of product design. 48
  49. 49.  Important Areas of Documentation Particulars with respect to their storage, stability & handling. Instructions of all manufacturing & packaging procedures, preferably batch wise are documented so that no further calculations are required at the work of floor level. Instructions for non product related operations such as cleaning & disinfections, maintenance of equipment, monitoring of working conditions use of specific conditions. Records such as batch manufacturing record, batch packaging record, test record for no product related operations as indicate. Procedures for testing for e.g. physical, chemical, microbiological. Etc. to be followed. Specifications of starting material packaging materials and product for the compliance by the quality control dept. 49
  50. 50.  Components of Documentation Numerical material identification system Master formula records Controls Master production and control records Batch production and control records Equipment cleaning and use of log book Records relating to container, closure and labeling. Production record review Distribution records Complaints files. 50
  51. 51. Numerical Material Identification System• Numerical codes are a means of identifying and specifying the manufacturing lot/batch no. utilized in the production.• Alfa numerical ordering system is used. Code number Application of number Item number Incoming raw materials, components Stock number Materials received from vendors & lot indication Control number Receipt of raw materials(active ingredients) Batch number Manufacturing cycle of a products Product number Product manufactured Packaging control number Packaging order 51
  52. 52.  Master Formula Records• It is defined as written procedures that give the complete description of all aspects of its manufacture, packing and control with an intension to ensure the purity, identity, quality & strength of each dosage unit throughout the entire shelf life.• Master formula includes1. Specifying a fixed formulation2. Identifying consistent quality criteria for components3. Providing an explicit set of manufacturing instructions4. Describing systematic sampling procedure5. Listing precise assays & tests6. Establishing methods for ensuring complete accountability for all material including packing and labeling 52
  53. 53. • Importance of master formula records for maintaining uniformity of product from batch to batch.• Master production and control records are of two types1. The master formula which gives proportion of ingredients in the formulation.2. Master batch formula, which specifies absolute amt. Of specific potent ingredient and excipients. 53
  54. 54.  Controls• Control records are prepared by a competent individual and verified as well as endorsed for its correctness by an independent competent authority.• Implementation of recordso Workers are expected to verify the relevant codes, instructions & accordingly perform the manufacturing operations.o Amt. Entering into next manufacturing process is determined.o Machine identification bar code is useful to control & identification of a process.o After completion of operations, the persons performing, he/she has to sign in the records with date & time. These are further signed by supervisor 54
  55. 55.  Master Production and Control Record Name, strength, composition, physical and chemical description, method of administration. Name of active ingredient and excipients, total weight of dosage unit. List of components by names and codes. Weight/measure of each component. Calculated excess of component. Theoretical weight. Theoretical yield, maximum %, minimum% of theoretical yield. Description of containers, closures, labels, labeling packaging materials. Instructions, sampling testing procedures, specifications, special notations, precautions. 55
  56. 56.  Batch Production and Control Records• Batch production and control records are detailed description of instructions, procedures, controls & specifications for the production of a batch of drug product.• Importance Serve as a manual (guide) for the actual production operations. Medium for recording all processes & procedures, which are required in pharmaceutical production. Serve as identification as to when they are performed by whom & where. Useful for verification in case of complaints on that batch. 56
  57. 57.  Equipment cleaning and use of log book. Records relating to container, closure and labeling. Production record review. Distribution records. Complaints file. - Receiving and recording of a complaints - Investigation of the complaints - Defect reporting. 57
  58. 58. Document, Document, Document!!!In FDA-speak: “If it is not documented . . . it did not happen!” or, it’s a rumor!” 58
  59. 59.  References Theory And Practice Of Industrial Pharmacy By Leon Lachman, H.A. Liberman, Verghese Publication House, 3rd Edition, Dader, Bombay. Laboratory Manual By Pamposh Kumar; V.P.S. Tomer; CBS Publishers and Distributors, Ist edition, 2005. Documentation Basics That Support GMP By Carol Desain, Advanstar Communications, 1993. Good Manufacturing Practices For Pharmaceuticals, A Plan for Total Quality Control, 3rd edition, west publishing company. 59
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