Fundamentals of Book Repair


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  • Avoid Damaging Repair Practices --- focus on the slide and say no more. Some of what we repair is the result of the handiwork of well-intentioned book repair staff of the past. We want to prevent future book repair staff from having to correct problems we cause today. We can do this by following a few simple principles: Use only non-damaging supplies and materials in repair such as alkaline papers, pH neutral adhesives, inert plastics. Use reversible techniques whenever possible – methyl cellulose and wheat paste Do not apply a treatment greater or weaker than the problem . Use mending materials that approximate the strength and character of the item to be repaired (mending tapes are too strong). Show example of book repaired with duct tape. A too strong repair will cause more breakage in other areas. Too weak will ensure the item comes back to the repair unit therefore wasting time and resources.
  • Important terminology to know esp., when buying commercial supplies “ Important to know terminology esp., when buying commercial supplies What information do these terms convey? “ archival quality” - No standards for the use of this word. totally meaningless, suggests a material is long lasting or stable, can be misused by vendors “ acid free” - a little more information, implies that the product has a pH of 7.0 or higher. However, could be alkaline, neutral - no way of knowing. Not specific enough. Does not guarantee product will stay acid free. “ buffered or alkaline buffered” - an alkaline substance such as calcium carbonate has been added to a paper product to slow the attack of acids. Neutralizes acids released from materials it comes in contact with, 2%, called acid migration Alkaline buffered storage materials used in libraries and archives typically have a pH above 7 and below 9 . “ lignin” - a substance found in all plant matter, causes deterioration in paper, ground wood paper is very high in lignin. . It is not removed in the production of mechanical pulp, but it is best removed by using chemical process. a substance found in all plant matter, causes deterioration in paper, ground wood paper is very high in lignin. “ lig-free” - low lignin content is important for storage materials for permanently valuable materials. (about 0.3% lignin) *PH? – In chemistry, pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution, indicating acidity or alkalinity. In chemistry, acid is a substance capable of forming hydrogen (H+) ions when dissolved in water. Acids can damage cellulose in paper, board and cloth by means of hydrolysis. Acids can be introduced during manufacturing. It may be present in raw material as well. Acids may be introduced by migration from acid material or from atmospheric pollution. migration . *** Alkali- In Chemistry, it is a substance capable of forming hydroxyl (OH-) ions when dissolved in water. Alkaline compounds may be added to materials to neutralize acids or as an alkaline reserve or buffer for the purpose of counteracting acids which may form in the future.
  • There are standards set by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and NISO (The National Information Standards Organization). ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 standard for permanent paper. Significance of this slide is to show you the symbol for permanence. Sometimes it is in a cicrle. This permanence sign means 100 yrs or more. Resources available to you “ Sources of Products and Services” thru solinet vendor pages Compare types of Catalogs (Lg vs. specialized) Catalogs-Gaylord, University Products, Light Impressions, Talas, Conservation Resources International. Kit list of supplies and tools - on resource page
  • Adhesives Want a strong adhesive, flexible over time, does not stain or brittle over time. An adhesive used on an object of permanent value must be reversible or removable with out damaging the object. **Q- Have you seen adhesives on new acquisitions – books falling apart before they even hit the shelves? Adhesives to watch out for: - animal glues - made from animal products, breaks down quickly, stains, not flexible, and very hard to remove, can be irreversible. - hot melt glues: epoxy adhesives like rubber cement-will stain, post-its and glue sticks. Four types of adhesives we’ll be using during this workshop: Polyvinyl Acetate - white, pH neutral adhesive. Strong bond, remains flexible over time, dries quickly. Water soluble when liquid, not easily reversible when dry. Best for repairs on non-rare, non- original materials, when reversibility is not a factor. Long shelf life. Be wary of ‘white glue,’ book binders glue Look for PVA manufactured by companies listed in our supply list—they stake their reputation on making appropriate materials—not all companies do… Methyl Cellulose - dry synthetic adhesive. It dries slowly, clear and is flexible and reversible. Mix with water, no cooking. Not an extremely strong bond. Works well when mixed with PVA. Long shelf life. PVA/ methyl cellulose mixture - dries slower that straight PVA, better working properties. Wheat Starch Paste - preferred adhesive by conservators for Japanese paper applications. Reversible, strong bond, requires cooking. Flexibility depends on thickness of application. Pre-cooked paste is quick and almost as strong. Short shelf life. Methyl cellulose, wheat starch paste - All have adv. and disadv. for different repairs and have different strengths and weaknesses. "Time put into repairs done with poor quality materials is wasted as repairs will not hold and can cause further damage the book. ** SHOW SAMPLES OF CLOTH…. Cloth Show samples -woven fabrics, usually cotton, their names refer to the weave or finish linen has a linen look -Buckram (D-F grade) is heavier, stronger weight than c cloth Starch filled cloth used in past, books with this cloth are more susceptible to pest problems and attract mold –not widely available anymore BookMakers International, Ltd., TALAS, Hiromi Paper International, Inc. are some of the few suppliers of Starch filled Cloth at this time. It’s only available in large rolls. Supplies are limited. Polyester-cotton blend with acrylic coating used today in library binding—known as Conservation Buckram Group F Buckram (heavy woven fabric, thinner and stronger then buckram used years ago—will be hard to work with—more like what bindery uses) C & C-1 cloth (thinner, used for lighter volumes) Proxylin impregnated c-cloth bad for you All have advantages and disadvantages. Use c-cloth on lighter thinner books. Some coated buckram is difficult to work with or require longer drying time for the adhesives. Watch out for vinyl coatings (Polyvinyl chloride-PVC's) and those with adhesive on the back. These may be ok for material that will be weeded out of the collection within a few years, Public library collections for example. Book tapes will have “cold flow.” Not as strong bond. The adhesive will flow out from under the cloth and stick to surrounding materials, thus attracting dirt. * Cheaper to order in higher quantities. Buy in smaller quantity first to confirm what types of material you like to use. * Always order for quality not just expendability and attractiveness * Archival doesn’t necessarily mean good quality. Be careful what you read in catalogs. * Always order in detail, know what to ask. Don’t hesitate to ask for specifications of materials to verify what are in the products, if not specified in the catalog. Ex: Bookmaker’s Glue
  • Supplies (Paper, Plastic, Adhesives, and Cloth) Paper - Acid free or alkaline buffered Remember earlier discussion about the terms: Permanence (chemical stability) and Durability (physical strength). Paper comes in different weights, textures, and thicknesses, colors. Choose what you work best with. Your kit has several different types of paper, will go over in kit. [Japanese Papers - unique; strong, long fibers but thin and light weight. Kizukishi - cream color, lighter weight Sekishu - white, heavier weight, Endsheets - 80 lb. text weight paper, Blotter - very absorbent, thick but not dense cotton fibre, Heat set tissue: Barcham Green Lens tissue coated on one side with a mixture of two acrylic resins. Reversible with ethanol. Especially useful for mending where have water-soluble inks or coated paper. Check all paper material with a pH pen to verify quality **Show pH pen from Abby Know which way you want your grain long or short grain for ordering- we will go over later in skills.} Three plastics: Polyester- is common name for the plastic polyethylene terephthalate. Characteristics are: transparency, lack of color, high tensile strength and chemically stable (when made with no coatings or additives). Used in sheet form or film form to make folders, encapsulations, book jackets and adhesives. Trade names are Mylar D and Melinex. --- inert material - no plasticizers or other additives. Polyethylene and polypropylene – in its pure form, a chemically stable plastic material. Used in film form to make sleeves for photographic material and other uses. Cheaper alternative is polyester film. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) or vinyl . It is not chemically stable. Can emit acidic components which damage cellulose material. Chemicals called plasticizers are also used to make PVC more flexible. These damage library materials. ** Show PVC samples
  • See “Implementing a Book Repair and Treatment Program “ by Milevski and Nainis on listed on Bibliography . Great article regarding setting up book repair program Justify the book repair operation. containing survey results with justification, Compare costs of repair like we saw earlier to costs of commercial binding or replacement—use the savings to help justify the need for a program Acquire space, equipment, and supplies. Look on Ebay, flea markets, donations, consortium buying Develop job descriptions, org. charts, budgets with equipment and supply costs. Workflow or selection for book repair; who will be involved? What is required from other people and other departments (cataloging, library binding)?
  • Job descriptions can be found on COOL-see URL on bib, Personnel & Training Training Resources—Be careful what you use—not all training tools teach good techniques or techniques appropriate for long-term retention—Jane Greenfield’s manual listed in bibliography is a good source Note Dexterity indicator in pkt—Check with Human Resources to make sure you can give this test—might be able to only give it after you have hired individual—indication of their skills Videos for rent by SOLINET & Additional Workshops Different types of Manuals--create your own based on your situation ( see example ) Steps in Training Give understanding of why repairs are necessary & appreciation of the value of good repairs Discuss context -- how item reached state of disrepair, what treatment decision is made and why. Teach technicians one procedure at a time , when mastered move on to more complex procedures Demonstrate procedure and explain thoroughly, step-by-step. Assign the trainee to do the repair on a number of items, perhaps in batch mode, with regular observation by supervisor. Tips Encourage discussion & questions, Discuss mistakes openly and constructively Be available so staff can come to you when they are unsure about a treatment. Expect mistakes from new staff Practice new techniques on discards before incorporating them into the regular routine. After a reasonable period, set production standards based on weekly or monthly work in one procedure. From beginning, encourage staff to produce, but make sure standards are reasonable and increased when skills improve. May set aside a block of time during the week to reinforce training or demonstrate more complicated repairs
  • Here’s an example of a station with both full rolls and precut cloth stored on movable cart. Moveable cart can transport items from bulk storage. For other examples of how to set up space, you can get ideas by visiting facilities in other libraries or checking illustrations in repair manuals. Also, many preservation depts have websites with pictures of their labspace.
  • Fundamentals of Book Repair

    1. 1. Fundamentals of Book Repair: Introductory Material LYRASIS Preservation Services Funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, division of Preservation and Access.
    2. 2. LYRASIS Preservation Services We offer: • Education and training: full-day workshops, live online and self-paced classes. • Information and referral: call us with your preservation questions! • Loan services: we have environmental monitoring equipment available for loan. • Publications: all types of preservation publications, downloadable for free. • Disaster assistance: We are available 24/7 to assist you. • Consulting: personalized assistance for your specific preservation needs.
    3. 3. Welcome • This short class is intended to introduce participants to some concepts before the LYRASIS 2-day class, Fundamentals of Book Repair. – For information on registering for the class or other Preservation classes available from LYRASIS, please go to:
    4. 4. Class Objectives Introductory Material • Learn the anatomy of the basic 20th century book • Introduce decision making criteria for book repair, as not everything can (or should!) be repaired in house. • Understand what to look for in quality, non-damaging supplies and materials. • Introduce the basics of organizing and managing a repair unit.
    5. 5. What can a book repair program do for me? • Extends the useable life and Improves the overall condition of a collection. • Corrects damage incurred through poor manufacture, use, abuse and aging. • Reduces the time materials are out of circulation. • Materials repaired in-house quickly can reduce time out of circulation as opposed to commercial binding.
    6. 6. What can a book repair program do for me? • Reduces number of books needing commercial binding, therefore saving your institution money. • ($6-12 to rebind, versus a hinge tighten or spine replacement: ranging from $0.25 - $3.00 including labor & material.) • Sends a positive message to patrons: they see that you care, and they will take care of the collections material.
    7. 7. Preservation Activities Preservation is a combination of prospective (proactive) and retrospective (reactive) activities. It is any activity that is undertaken to ensure the longevity of material. You are probably doing some of these actions and may not have realized they are “preservation activities.”
    8. 8. • Collections conservation, book repair, conservation treatment (in-house or contract). – Conservation is an activity performed on an item by a trained conservator. So, conservation is when there is physical intervention directly affecting the material. – Book repair is preventive because it anticipates potential damage, so to continue providing information to patrons. Many repairs, such as hinge tightening, prevent more severe damage from occurring, prolonging the need for commercial rebinding or replacement. Preservation Activities (continued)
    9. 9. • Commercial library binding – As you prep items going to the bindery, you might do repairs such as tip-in, page mends and endsheets. By doing these repairs, you reduce binding costs and assure a quality end product. • Staff and user education – Educate users about proper care and handling of materials. Many institutions have food and drink policies, proper photocopy procedures, etc. • Reformatting – Microfilming, digitization, preservation photocopying Preservation Activities (continued)
    10. 10. • Emergency preparedness – Do you have a disaster plan in place? – Some resources from LYRASIS: • Environmental monitoring – Gather comprehensive data about the storage environment and compare with building systems. • Pest management – Keep your building clean, take trash out daily, segregate food and drink away from collections area. Preservation Activities (continued)
    11. 11. • SO book repair, the focus of this class, is just one component of an overall preservation & collections maintenance program within a library. To DO Preservation doesn’t necessarily require that you launch new programs. -just do current activities differently -with an eye to their long term impact on collections, a matter of a change in perspective. – Library preservation programs range in size from an individual given part time responsibility among other duties to a full scale program with a budget, a PA, and support staff. • The target of a repair program should be heavily used, non-rare, modern volumes. – (Older volumes may be less appropriate for standard book repair, due to intrinsic or historic value these can be further protected with an enclosure or taken to a conservator.)
    12. 12. Threats to Collections chemical and physical composition • Items in collections are complex; composed of organic and inorganic materials that will deteriorate at different rates over time. (board, cloth, leather, glues, thread, etc) • Design and construction of an item is vital as well - this could be true for a book as well as cd’s and other media.
    13. 13. • Examples critical to collections are temperature, RH, light, proper storage furniture, and good housekeeping. How do you ensure you have the correct conditions? • Know the appropriate environment for storage of library and archival material: • You can monitor the collections’ environment by using environmental monitoring equipment such as hygrothermographs or data loggers Threats to Collections Environment and storage
    14. 14. Threats to Collections • Use and handling of a collection is another threat – The frequent use and poor handling of items by staff and patrons can cause damage. Poor repair practices, and poor handling in transportation can also accelerate damage.
    15. 15. Avoid Damaging Repair Practices • Some of what we repair is the result of the handiwork of well-intentioned book repair staff of the past. We want to prevent future book repair staff from having to correct problems we cause today. We can do this by following a few simple principles:
    16. 16. Avoid Damaging Repair Practices • Do not apply a treatment greater or weaker than the problem. Use mending materials that approximate the strength and character of the item to be repaired. A too strong repair will cause more breakage in other areas. Too weak will ensure the item comes back to the repair unit, therefore wasting time and resources. • Use only non-damaging supplies and materials in repair such as alkaline papers, pH neutral adhesives, and inert plastics.
    17. 17. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive Tape • Tape is composed of two parts: the carrier (some type of plastic, paper or cloth) and the adhesive (commonly rubber or acrylic). • Cold flow is a characteristic of pressure sensitive tapes. This means the adhesive tends to flow beyond edges of the carrier. It attracts dust as the edges become sticky, and can cause materials in proximity to stick together.
    18. 18. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive Tape • Damaging, non-permanent materials- Most plastics degrade and cause damage, such as “scotch tape” that will shrink and yellow as it ages. Eventually the backing will peel off and you are left with sticky, brown tape residue. This is very difficult to remove without solvents which could be harmful to paper. In the past most tapes had a rubber based adhesive. Rubber adhesives are particularly damaging (masking tapes are still rubber). Rubber adhesives give off acids as they degrade that break down paper, they discolor and cause staining. Today most adhesives are acrylic. Acrylic based adhesives tend to be more stable, however, composition varies widely, and they are not reversible without chemicals.
    19. 19. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive Tape • Tape DOES NOT repair structural problems. When a spine is damaged it often means the internal hinge is damaged, placing tape on the spine doesn’t do anything, except inhibit movement and flexibility of the spine, and cause breakage in other areas. • It is very difficult to remove once applied, and can cause permanent damage.
    20. 20. The Evils of Pressure - Sensitive Tape • Exception: Pressure sensitive tapes are easy to use and quick. The are “OK” for items regularly superseded, outdated and discarded. However, be aware that these repairs will not hold up to heavy use.
    21. 21. Anatomy of a book • To understand how to properly repair a book, it is important to understand all the book parts and pieces. • Knowledge of book construction is essential to understanding how mishandling and poor repairs affects the physical operation of a book. – Let’s take a look into the anatomy of a book and how it is constructed…
    22. 22. BookStructure • The front and back covers protect the textblock. They are usually made of heavy book board or card stock in the case of “softbacks” (i.e. paperbacks).
    23. 23. BookStructure • The spine of the book cover protects the spine of the textblock.
    24. 24. BookStructure • The joint area, (also known as the hinge or groove) is the interior or exterior point on a book where the cover meets the spine. Inside, it's where the flyleaf (front free endpaper) meets the pastedown (the endpaper which is pasted to the inside cover of the book).
    25. 25. Book Structure • The top edge of the boards, spine, and text block when a book is upright on a shelf is the head.
    26. 26. Book Structure • The unbound edge of the book's pages, opposite the spine. Older books and special editions may have gilded (gold) or painted fore-edges. When present, tabs or a thumb index are affixed to the fore-edge.
    27. 27. Book Structure • The bottom edge of the boards, spine, and text block that the book rests on when it is sitting upright on a shelf is the tail.
    28. 28. Book Structure • Endpapers are found at the very front and back of the book. They play a critical part in holding the textblock inside the case.
    29. 29. Book Structure • Pastedown– the part of the endsheet/end paper that is glued to the inside cover.
    30. 30. Book Structure • Fly leaf –the loose part of the endsheet opposite the pastedown connected to the textblock.
    31. 31. Book Structure • Hinge – is the inner margin of the outside joint/groove. This internal area closest to the spine is also called the “gutter” of the book when referring to the inner textblock.
    32. 32. Book Structure • Headcap- the upper portion of the spine.
    33. 33. Book Structure • Headband- a decorative ribbon / cording used at the head and tail of the spine
    34. 34. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see. (turn-in) • Turn-in: Book cloth that forms the cover that is wrapped around the inner part of the boards.
    35. 35. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see. (turn-in) • The inlay forms the spine of the case can be soft paper or hard cover board material.
    36. 36. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see. (turn-in) • The board forms the covers of the bookcase- provides stiffness or rigidity for hardcover books.
    37. 37. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see. (turn-in) • Textblock- the sewn or glued grouping of pages.
    38. 38. BookStructureBefore the textblock and case are pasted together, this is what you would see. (turn-in) • The super is attached to the spine of the book and helps to attach the textblock to the case. The spine lining reinforces the attachment of the super.
    39. 39. • It is important to note that the only thing that holds a textblock in the covers in contemporary books is the pastedown part of the endsheet, and the super- (sometimes very weak and cheap, and sometimes non-existent!). These two connections hold the weight of the text block into the case. • This is why proper shelving and care for books is so important. If materials are not cared for properly they can easily break and tear in these areas!
    40. 40. BookStructure • Bindings Sewn binding Some books are sewn thru the groupings of folded sheets, called signatures. In sewn bindings, you should be able to visibly see the signatures, and you will find thread in the center of each signature.
    41. 41. BookStructure • Bindings Other books are not sewn and have glued bindings. Commonly referred to as “double fan”, a gathering of loose pages are run over a roller ("fanning" the pages) to apply a thin layer of glue to each page edge. This is then done in the opposite direction so a small amount of glue adheres the pages together at the spine. However, certain types of paper do not hold adhesive well, and with wear and tear, the pages can come loose. Glued binding
    42. 42. Identification of material There are two common ways to identify collections that may be in need of repair. Don’t go through stacks item by item! • Use • Circulation, new acquisitions, shelvers, use for exhibits, gifts. • Survey • Identify a portion of the collection to focus on (reference collection or reserves, for instance. They get heavy use, but do not circulate).
    43. 43. Consider two levels of decision making. • Level 1 decisions are made by circulation staff as returned books are checked in. Books that are damaged are routed to preservation for repair. • Level 2 decisions (which repair) or other appropriate options are made by preservation staff, curators or subject specialists. Identification of material
    44. 44. • The key here is that the person with the knowledge of the in-house skill level should be making the final decision. If someone wants a repair done and it is outside your training and skill level, DON’T DO IT. You could cause more harm than good. Protect the material with an enclosure or send to commercial bindery or a conservator, depending on the material. Identification of material
    45. 45. Decision-making • Collection significance- How important is the item to the collection? • Patterns of use- How is the material used? • Condition of the item- Is the book brittle? Is the structure stable? If the material is not stable, DO NOT attempt to repair it. • Is the item worth the staff time and money? Calculate the value of the item and the time it would take for you to repair it. Is it worth it?
    46. 46. The Universe of Options • Repair: is it a torn page or something you have the knowledge to repair? • Reformat: for access of brittle material or damaged beyond repair. – microfilm, preservation photocopy, digitization • Re-house: build an enclosure for items outside of repair skills or for items that might cost too much money to repair or rebind. ?? ? ???
    47. 47. The Universe of Options • Commercial bind: for heavily used materials in good shape. • Return to shelf as is: some materials have slight damage that could circulate more times before repair. • Purchase another copy: say you have a damaged copy of a popular novel… • Transfer to limited access: example: an out of print art book to prevent from damage- make it non-circulating, used only in-house.
    48. 48. Repair Cost Estimates REPAIR Materials Labor* Time* Total Cost Hinge Tightening N/A N/A 5 min. $.50 Endsheet $.15 $2.55 15 min. $2.70 Spine Repl. $.11 $5.10 30 min. $5.21 Recase-Orig. Cover $.28 $7.65 45 min. $7.93 Phase Box $3.69 $5.10 30 min. $8.75 Wrapper $1.68 $2.55 15 min. $4.23 Drop Spine Box $3.00 $20.00 2 hrs. $23.00 * Time based on batch production * Labor estimated at $10/hour * Cost is per item and excludes equipment • You have to compute your own costs according to your institutions labor costs, overhead, etc. These costs are based upon batch processing and assumed proficiency. At first, it may take you a lot longer to complete repairs.
    49. 49. The maze of terminology • “Archival quality” • “Acid-free” • “Alkaline buffered” • “Lignin” and “lignin-free” • “Permanent/durable”
    50. 50. ANSI / NISO Z39.48 Standard for Permanent Paper –pH –Alkaline reserve –Tear resistance –Lignin content
    51. 51. Supplies • Adhesives - PVA (polyvinyl acetate) - Paste (wheat or rice starch) - Methyl cellulose • Cloth - Aqueous or acrylic coated - Conservation buckram - Starch filled
    52. 52. Supplies • Paper – Alkaline-buffered and pH neutral – Lignin-free • Plastics – Use polyester, polyethylene, or polypropylene – (Mylar, Mellinex, Tyvek, or Reemay) PVC’sACIDS
    53. 53. Implementing a Book Repair Program • Justify the book repair operation. • Acquire space, equipment, and supplies. • Develop job descriptions and show where book repair fits within the organization. • Decision-making. • Establish workflow.
    54. 54. Repair Unit • How will the material move through the workflow? Focus on identification of material, sorting of material, determining treatment options, and keeping statistics— Don’t take material if you don’t have time to repair them! Use chart and memos to convey your workflow Use flags to help route material from person to person and to help determine where it has been, where it is going, where it should end up- it--OHD Show-flags in pkt- who sent it and where it should be returned, who did the repair
    55. 55. Repair Unit • How will the damaged material be organized? Sort by receipt date or type of repair or size on proper shelving.This makes it easier for batch work. • Who will perform the standardized repair techniques? know the strengths of your technicians or your workers --depends on yourturnaround time goals, the size of your backlog, the complexity of the repairs done in the unit, Who is better at certain techniques. Train and provide adequate equipment and supplies, for example precut materials or construct jigs to aid in repairs • Repair staff need to know what they should not try to fix. Clear decision is needed about who decides what to repair in-house, what not to.
    56. 56. Repair Unit • What type of statistics will you keep? • Neededto gauge productivity, to re-affirm value of the work being done to the administration, to justify the need for further staff, equipment, materials • Some gather by type of treatment, but is difficult to classify treatment, some items receive more than one; Some gather by number of items treated, but if do many types of repairs, it is difficult to indicate complexity of repairs and how much repair is given to any single item. Combination of both is good, simplicity is best. There are some examples in your handout of statistic sheets.
    57. 57. Space: Three Basic Needs • Adequate space for work and storage – Space should be dedicated and in a secure area • Light : Daylight or incandescent – Task lighting is very helpful and reduces eye strain • Water and a sink – Water for cleaning bushes and surfaces and distilled water for making glue and tearing paper
    58. 58. Book repair station layout • The following pictures illustrate a few book repair stations and tools at different institutions. – Note The amount of space per person. Ideally 5- 6 foot length and 2-3 foot depth. – Also note: • Task lighting • Use of drawers and shelving to hold necessary materials • Clean smooth work surfaces • Jars or cans to hold tools • Pegboard to hold rulers, Japanese paper, and other small items
    59. 59. Custom built work stations with pegboard wall
    60. 60. Cube work station
    61. 61. Desk work station
    62. 62. Storage of endsheets, spines, and bookcloth
    63. 63. Storage of rolled bookcloth
    64. 64. Equipment and Tools • We can discuss this more in class, but some typical equipment would be • Board shears or cutter • There can be some less expensive, safe solutions than having to buy an expensive cutter. • Presses • Can be a worthy investment if you begin working in large batches. • Hand tools • Ideally, everyone will have their own set. Buy quality materials and many tools will be a one-time purchase.
    65. 65. Board shear ($$$$)
    66. 66. Paper cutter, Kutrimmer brand ($$$)
    67. 67. Louet cutting guide (from Talas) ($$)
    68. 68. Cutting mats, straight edge, and bar clamps ($)
    69. 69. A cast iron book press
    70. 70. Contact Information Preservation Services 800-999-8558