Kaushik Khamrui Senior Scientist Dairy Technology DivisionNational Dairy Research InstituteKarnal – 132 001, Haryana, India Email: email@example.com
Food Science“Food Science is the discipline in which theengineering, biological, and physical sciences are usedto study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration,the principles underlying food processing, and theimprovement of foods for the consuming public”(Institute of Food Technologist’s, USA)Food Science is a highly interdisciplinary appliedscience that incorporates concepts from many differentfields including microbiology, chemical engineering,chemistry, physics, biochemistry and many others
Sub-disciplines of Food Science1. Food technology: the application of science in processing, preserving, packaging, storing food, according to industry and/or government specifications2. Food Safety: the causes, prevention & communication dealing with food- borne illness3. Food microbiology: the positive & negative interactions between micro- organisms and foods4. Food chemistry: the molecular composition of food and the involvement of these molecules in chemical reactions5. Food physics: the physical aspects of foods e.g., it’s viscosity, texture etc6. Food engineering: the industrial processes used for food manufacture7. Product development: the invention of new food products8. Sensory analysis: the study how food is perceived by consumer’s senses9. Food packaging: the study how packaging is used to contain and preserve food after processing till reaches to the consumer10. Molecular gastronomy: the scientific investigation of the effects of the processes involved in cooking in molecules present in food that determine it’s taste and smell.
Food Production in India (2007-08) Production in (Million World’s share World Rank Tonnes) (%) (Approx.) Cereals 260.48 11 #2 Rice 99.15 24 #2 Wheat 67 15 #2 Pulses 14.14 25.37 #1 Oilseeds 12.02 8.1 #5 Vegetables 77.24 8.50 #2 Fruits 57.47 10.36 #2 Milk 127.3(’11-’12) 16 #1 Egg 2.67 4.21 #3Chicken meat 2.24 2.95 #5Cattle meat 1.28 2.14 #9Goat & sheep 0.77 6 #2 meatFresh water 3.99 9.84 #2 fish Pig meat 0.5 0.5 #26
The Indian Food IndustryIndia is the world’s second largest producer of food (only next to China)Size of Indian Food market: Rs. 8190 billionSize of the food processing industry Rs. 3150 billionFood processing industry is one of the largest in India, ranks fifth in terms of production, consumption growth & export prospectsGOI envisages to triple the size by 2015 enhancing India’s share in global food trade from 1.5 to 3 %Food processing industry in India will grow 30-40% in next 10 years vis-à-vis 15% at presentThe industry has the highest number of plants approved by the USFDA outside the USA
Food Processing Industry Subsectors Milk & Milk Products Poultry and Meat Fisheries Fruits and vegetables Grain Packaged/Convenience foods Beverages & Soft drinks Spices
Milk & Milk ProductsLargest producer of milk in the world: 108 MMT in 2008-09Size of the dairy industry Rs. 2820 billion, growing at the rate of 5 % per annum48% of milk consumed by the producer, 52% marketable surplusUnorganized sector handles 70% of surplus, organized sector 30%Projected domestic demand of milk 180 MMT by 2021-22Needs to grow annually by 5 MMT
Poultry & Meat India is third largest producer of eggs, fifth largest producer of chicken meat Lowest cost of egg production in the world Organized sector of poultry industry is contributing 70% of total output the rest 30% by unorganized sector Presently around 800 hatcheries operating in country Poultry industry growing @ 8-15% annually NIN has recommended 180 eggs & 11 kg meat per capita Per capita availability at present: 42 eggs & 1.6 kg meat Poultry industry is labour intensive and has potential to create 25,000 jobs on the consumption of one more egg per capita and 25,000 additional jobs on the consumption of 100 gram of more chicken meat With steady production of 2.24 MMT of chicken meat, 2.67 MMT of egg and employment generation of about 3 million people indicates the future prospects of poultry industry India has a mere 2 % contribution of world’s total meat production
Value of the Output of India’s Livestock Sector (Rs. Crores)Item 2005-06 2006-071 Milk Group 130631 1443862 Meat Group 31069 343102.1 Meat 26600 29706 2.1.1 Beef 2993 3366 2.1.2 Mutton 10415 11844 2.1.3 Pork 1520 1837 2.1.4 Poultry Meat 11671 126582.2 Meat Products 986 11312.3 By-Products 3483 3473 2.3.1 Hides 1291 1290 2.3.2 Skins 1349 1229 2.3.3 Other by 844 954products Continued
Value of the Output of Livestock Sector (Rs. Crores)Item 2005-06 2006-073 Eggs 6134 71234 Wool & hair 328 3394.1 Wool 225 2304.2 Hair and Bristles 103 1095 Dung 14445 155965.1 Dung Fuel 6817 74295.2 Dung Mature 7628 81666 Silk Worm Cocoons 1689 1766and Honey7 Increment in Stock 6313 7110Grand total 190608 210629 Source: Central Statistical Organization, Dept. Of Statistics, GOI(2008)
FisheriesRanks second in the world in fresh water fish productionResources: 8000km coastline, 3 mn hector reservoirsProcessing of marine product into canned & frozen form for export market372 freezing units with daily processing capacity of 10,320 tonnes & 504 frozen storage facilities with a capacity of 138229 tonnesAnti-dumping regulation initiated by US effected India’s shrimp export to US
Fruits & VegetablesIndia stands second in the world for production of fruits are vegetablesA mere 2% is processed, over 25% is spoiled due to improper handling and storage leading to losses of Rs 25000 crore annuallyOther developing countries e.g., Brazil, South Africa Malaysia & Philippines processed 70, 80, 83 & 78 %, respectivelyFruits and vegetable processing industry is highly decentralized, majority of the industry are in the cottage, household and small scale-sector A remarkable push can be given to this sector by strengthening the linkages between farmers and processors
Grain Processing Processing of grain includes milling of wheat, rice and pulsesPrimary milling is the most important activity in this sector but it adds little to the shelf life, waste control and value additionApprox. 65% of rice production is milled in modern rice mealsIndian Basmati has gained international recognition and is a premium export productWheat floor milling: 820 large mill, more than 3 lakh small units in the unorganized sectorBranded grains are gaining popularity due to hygienic packaging
Packed/Convenience FoodsBiscuits, chocolates, chips, confectionary, snacks, pasta, cocoa based products etc. falls in this segmentTotal value in this sector Rs. 489 billion to 587 billionTotal 60,000 bakeries & 20,000 traditional food units in IndiaIndia is third largest producer of biscuits after USA & ChinaMarket for biscuits in India is growing @ 12-15 per cent per annum, the per capita consumption in our country is only 2.1 kg per annum, compared to more than 10 kg in the USA, UK and Western European countriesHuge export market in UAE, Afghanistan, Pakistan, USA, European Countries, East Asian countries
Beverages & Soft DrinksIndia accounts for approximately 10% of global beverage consumptionIndia is the third largest in the world, after US & ChinaThe market for carbonated drinks in India is worth US$ 1.5 billion, whileJuice and juice-based drinks market accounts for US$ 0.25 billionThe fruit-drinks category is one of the fastest growing in the beverages market growing @ 25% Sports and energy drinks, which currently have a low penetration in the Indian market, have sufficient potential to grow.
SpicesIndia produced 4.14 MMT spices in 2008-09Despite a global slowdown, Indian spice exports are growingIndia exported 470,520 tonnes of spices valued at US $ in 2008-09.
Government Initiative for Food Processing SectorFood processing industries have been put in the list of priority sectors for bank lendingThrust on contract farming and making the sector tax-freeGOI plans to open 30 mega food parks by the end of the 11th five year plan (2007-2012).Fruit and vegetable processing units have been completely exempted from paying excise duty.Automatic approval for foreign equity up to 100% in most of the processed food items.Exempting/reducing central excise duly in food products e.g., fruits and vegetables products, condensed milk, ice cream, meat productsThe MFPI would assist in the setting up of more food processing units so that the industry could create 10 million jobs by 2015
Milk & Milk Products in Human NutritionSince time immemorial milk has been considered an ideal food for infants and childrenMilk & milk products are not only a source of good quality proteins but also of Ca & Riboflavin & numerous other nutrients e.g., biotin, pantothenic acid, iodine, potassium, magnesium, selenium, thiamin, Vit – A, B12, D & K etc.Recent studies show possible links between low-fat milk consumption and reduced risk of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, colorectal cancer and obesityOverweight individuals who drink milk may benefit from decreased risk of insulin resistance & type 2 diabetesOne study has shown that among the women desiring to have a child, those who consume full fat dairy products increase their fertilityMilk is also a source of CLA
Meat & Fish in Human NutritionMeat, poultry & fish are rich in good quality protein & also provide B-vitaminsA special feature of flesh foods are that they contains Vit-B12 which is absent in plant foodsAlso a good source of Vit – A (liver)Fish is a good source of Ca and ω-3 fatty acids, which are known to protect against CVDsSince some amount of animal food is useful in improving the quality of vegetarian diet, efforts should be made to increase production of fish for which there is a good potential in our country and make it available to the population which can consume it.
Fruits in Human NutritionServe as source of energy, vitamins, minerals, & dietary fiberEnergy 1) Carbohydrates: banana, jackfruit, dates, raisin 2) Proteins are amino acid chains: nuts, fig 3) Fats: avocado, olive, nutsVitamins 1) IN US diet contribute: 90% of Vit-C, 25% of Vit-B6 and 15% of thiamin and niacin requirement is fulfilled by fruits 2) Vit-A: cherry, orange, watermelon 3) Vit-C: orange, strawberry, banana, apple, etc 4) Niacin: peach, banana, orange, apricot 5) Riboflavin : banana, orange, avocado 6) Thiamin: orange, banana, grapefruit and apple
Fruits in Human Nutrition Dietary fibers Important role in relieving constipation by increasing water-holding capacity of the feces Decrease the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and colon cancer Consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectic substances Dietary fiber content ranges from 0.5-1.5%
Fruits in Human Nutrition Minerals in fruits 1) Potassium: banana, peach, orange, apple 2) Phosphorus: banana, orange, peach, raisin, fig 3) Calcium: tangerine, grapefruit, orange 4) Iron: strawberry, banana, apple, orange
Grains in Human Nutrition Major cereals, millets and pulses consumed in India are rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, ragi Main sources of energy in Indian diets contributing 70-80% of daily energy of majority of Indians Since they are cheapest, contribution to energy intake is inversely proportional to income Due to their relatively large intakes cereals are also an important source of several other nutrients like protein, Ca, Fe and B-complex vitamins Millets are rich sources in minerals and fiber, hence inclusion of some amount of millets will help in making up mineral deficiencies and also providing bulk
Pulses in Human Nutrition Pulses are important sources of proteins in vegetarian diet Pulses are rich in B-vitamins The protein of pulse are of low quality since they are deficient in methionine and tryptophan, however they are rich in lysine Pulses can supplement protein in cereals which are lysine deficient and the quality of the protein from mixture of cereals and pulses in superior to that of either one The most effective combination is 8 parts of cereals with 1 part of pulses
Major Nutrients in FoodsFood Group Main NutrientsCereal Grains & ProductsRice, Wheat, Ragi, Bajra, Maize, Jowar, Barley, Riceflakes, Energy, Protein, Invisible fat, Vit – B1, B2, FolicWheat floor Acid, FiberPulses & LegumesBengalgram, Blackgram, Greengram, Redgram, Lentil, Cowpea, Energy, Protein, Invisible fat, Vit – B1, B2, FolicPeas, Rajmah, Soyabeans, Beans etc. Acid, Ca, Fe, FiberMilk & Milk ProductsMilkLiquid milk, Dahi, Skimmed milk, Cheese Protein, Fat, Vit – B2, CaMeatChicken, Liver, Fish, Egg, Meat Protein, Fat, Vit – B2,Fruits & VegetablesFruitsMango, Guava, Tomato, Papaya, Orange, Sweet lime, Water Carotenoides, Vit-C, FibermelonGreen leafy vegetablesAmaranth, Spinach, Gogu, Drumstick leaves, Coriander leaves, Invisible fats, Carotenoides, Vit – B2, Folic acid,Mustard leaves, Fenugreek leaves Ca, Fe, FiberOther vegetablesCarrots, Brinjal, Ladies fingers, Capsicum, Beans, Onion, Carotenoides, Folic acid, Ca, FiberDrumstick, CauliflowerFats & SugarsFatsButter, Ghee, Hydrogenated oils, Cooking oils like Ground nut, Energy, Fat, Essential Fatty acidsMustard, coconutSugarsSugar, Jaggery Energy
Nutritional SecurityNutritional security implies physical, economic and social access to balanced diet, clean drinking water, safe environment & health care for every individualThe term malnutrition includes both under-nutrition in terms of proteins, calories, fats, vitamins and minerals and over-nutrition leading to obesityThough India has made great progress in food production, 50% Indians particularly preschool children and women suffer from protein calorie malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency particularly Fe leading to anemiaEvery third child born in India is low birth weight30% adults are under nourishedTen % Indians are obese and incidence being almost 20% in urban areas
Nutritional SecurityNational Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) Surveys done between 1975-79 & 2005-06, show marked reduction in intake of foods (expressed as % of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Cereals >100 to 82; Pulse 85 to 70, Milk 77 to 55; Sugar 77 to 47; Energy 97 to 76 Protein 103 to 70; Fe 62 to 53The malnutrition has a complex etiology and its prevention requires Awareness & Access at Affordable price to all the parameters of nutritional securityCountrywide diet survey shows that Indian diets are qualitatively more deficient in vitamins and minerals than proteins due to low intake of ‘income-elastic’ foods like vegetables, fruits, pulses and flesh foodsMalnutrition reduces immunity & infections and disease reduce appetite, impair absorption and lead to catabolic losses of precious nutrients
Food production vis-à-vis Nutritional SecurityIndia’s food grain (wheat & rice) production went up and kept ahead of population till mid ‘90s but tending to plateauPulse production has stagnated and per capita availability has declinedThere is erosion in millet production & consumptionMilk, fruit & vegetable production has increased markedly, but that is not reflected in the diet of the poor due tom poor purchasing power & lack of awareness of their importance in dietNew technologies for bio-fortification of crops have been developed could not adopted due to inability of put in place convincing safety guidelines and measures
Food Processing & Nutritional SecurityThirty % of India’s farm produce is wasted due to inadequate post harvest storage facilities & food processing for value additionFood processing helps to prevent post harvest losses. NDRI, IVRI, CIFT and several ICAR Institutes, CFTRI, DFRL etc. have developed useful products & storage devices that should be put into practiceEmphasis should be given in developing nutrient dense high shelf life fortified foods like biscuits and ready to eat mixesThere should be grater scientific interaction between nutrition scientists and scientists belonging to food science, agriculture, medicine, public health as well as social scientists/activists
ConclusionFood Science: highly interdisciplinary applied science that incorporates concepts from many different fields including microbiology, chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, biochemistry etc.Food processing industry is one of the largest industries in India, ranks fifth in terms of production, consumption growth and export prospectsThough India has made great progress in food production a large chunk of Indian population suffers from protein calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency related ailments.There is an urgent need to improve the efficiency in utilizing the existing food resources by adopting technologies developed by various research institutes/organizations in India.