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Psicología educativa segundo parcial
 

Psicología educativa segundo parcial

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    Psicología educativa segundo parcial Psicología educativa segundo parcial Presentation Transcript

    • Karen Horney (1885-1952)
    • Is Karen Horney a Freudian?
      • Like Freud, she believed in the importance of unconscious motivation, of sexual matters, but she believed that Freud overstressed biology
      • Her view of human beings is more optimistic
    • The Oedipal Conflict
      • was seen more in terms of the social interaction within the family, the conflicts, patterns of dominance etc…
      • It involves clinging, jealousy etc… like Freud, but for different reasons: the child is negotiating his/her place in the family
    • Gender Envy
      • Karen Horney denied the importance of penis envy (girls wishing they had a penis as Freud proposed) --when it occurs, it is more a matter of social comparison.
      • Horney introduces (perhaps somewhat tongue in cheek), the concept of womb envy --males wishing they could give birth to a child.
      • Sees the fact that one gender might envy some feature of the other, as cultural rather than biological.
    • The Cause of Neurosis
      • Karen Horney thought the main source of neurosis lied in the experience of betrayal , of not being loved, and being helpless to bring about that love, and not in the dynamics of the Oedipal conflict.
    • What is Basic Evil?
      • Basic evil is a lack of genuine warmth and affection for the child. The parent is not so much abusive as indifferent, and unaware of the effect of his/her behavior on the child.
      • This translates into behaviors like unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, ridiculing independent thinking, disturbing friendships, spoiling the child's interest in his/her own pursuits.
    • When the Child Encounters Basic Evil
      • The first reaction is hostility
      • But, as the child needs the parent, and hostility threatens that bond, hostility is repressed.
      • The repression of basic hostility results in basic anxiety : feeling lonely and helpless in a hostile world.
    • I Am not Worthy to Be Loved
      • The " despised real self " says: I am truly a disgraceful creature, a bad person, someone no one can truly love…
    • But I Should…
      • The ideal self says: people would love you if you were kinder, more athletic, more outgoing, more unselfish, a better friend, parent, mate. They would love you if you were more courageous, more disciplined, achieved more…
      • This is a neurotic solution to the conflict --as no one can be such a person.
    • The Tyranny of the Shoulds
      • A person can be driven by these demands of the ideal self.
      • As these demands are impossible, the attempts to satisfy the "shoulds" is bound to fail.
      • Thus self hate and feelings of false guilt increase, as well as despair and helplessness.
    • Alienation from the Self
      • When succumbing to the tyranny of the "shoulds" individuals will:
        • Hate themselves, not want to really know themselves, want to run from themselves
        • Loose their own creativity as they strive to please
        • Despair, and feel helpless in the face of their own behavior.
    • Horney's Concept of the Self
      • The actual self : the person you actually are --regardless of anyone's perceptions
      • The real self : the core of your being, your potential, the need to be who you are truly (the subjective view of the actual self).
      • The despised real self : negative view of the self, based on the lack of love and acceptance by others
      • The ideal self : the perfect self you think you should be, so you can be loved.
    • How can I keep you from hurting me?
      • I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming, self-effacing solution, moving toward people
      • I'll control things, manipulate, exploit, attack if needed: the expansive solution of moving against people
      • I'll grow my own protective shell, be independent, rebellious, or not look at painful things: the resignation solution: moving away from people
    • If those Defensive Strategies Become a Life Style
      • Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT personality with these traits:
        • Need for affection and approval
        • Need for a dominant partner
      • Moving against people leads to an AGGRESSIVE personality with these traits:
        • Need for power, exploitation, prestige, admiration
        • Need for achievement
      • Moving away from people lead to a DETACHED personality with these traits:
        • Need for perfection
        • Setting narrow limits to life
    • Some Auxiliary Defenses(1)
      • Externalization: other people become the center of the neurotic's life. Hence, feeling of inner emptiness.
      • Creation of blind spots: inability to see how different one is from one's ideal image
      • Compartmentalization between various areas of life ex: business, family, church
    • Auxiliary Defenses (2)
      • Rationalization: ex: I did this to make them happy (no--to make them like you)
      • Excessive self-control: don't want to be caught in any emotion, vulnerability
      • Arbitrary rightness: seemingly impulsive decisions (to avoid the pain of real decision making) that are then rationalized.
      • Elusiveness: constant clouding of issues
      • Cynicism: assuming that self-interest is the only motivation in operation, and therefore behaving that way oneself.
    • Karen Horney's Religious Background
      • Karen and her brother Brendt called their father the "Bible-thrower" because he would literally throw the Bible at his wife on occasion.
      • Karen's father --though being a sea-captain-- had a rigid form of religion and was very strict. Karen's mother was more flexible.
    • About her Confirmation
      • Karen Horney wrote in her diary: "Confirmation was no blessing for me. On the contrary, it was a great piece of hypocrisy, for I professed belief in the teachings of Christ, the doctrine of love, while carrying hatred in my heart (and for my nearest at that [her father]). I felt too weak to follow Christ. Yet I long for the faith, firm as a rock, that makes oneself and others happy."
    • Family Dynamics
      • Karen had on-going conflicts with their father -- though she ended up marrying someone that shared some of these same authoritarian qualities.
      • Brendt, her older brother was the preferred one. Karen felt that she had been unwanted. Karen was very attached to Brendt.
    • Depression
      • Karen Horney struggled much with depression.
      • Her own struggles and difficulties helped her understand the dynamics of neurosis.
      • Her analysis of neurosis has been recognized as most insightful, and her theories are enjoying a renewal of interest.
    • The End