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Psicología educativa segundo parcial
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Psicología educativa segundo parcial


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  • 1. Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  • 2. Is Karen Horney a Freudian?
    • Like Freud, she believed in the importance of unconscious motivation, of sexual matters, but she believed that Freud overstressed biology
    • Her view of human beings is more optimistic
  • 3. The Oedipal Conflict
    • was seen more in terms of the social interaction within the family, the conflicts, patterns of dominance etc…
    • It involves clinging, jealousy etc… like Freud, but for different reasons: the child is negotiating his/her place in the family
  • 4. Gender Envy
    • Karen Horney denied the importance of penis envy (girls wishing they had a penis as Freud proposed) --when it occurs, it is more a matter of social comparison.
    • Horney introduces (perhaps somewhat tongue in cheek), the concept of womb envy --males wishing they could give birth to a child.
    • Sees the fact that one gender might envy some feature of the other, as cultural rather than biological.
  • 5. The Cause of Neurosis
    • Karen Horney thought the main source of neurosis lied in the experience of betrayal , of not being loved, and being helpless to bring about that love, and not in the dynamics of the Oedipal conflict.
  • 6. What is Basic Evil?
    • Basic evil is a lack of genuine warmth and affection for the child. The parent is not so much abusive as indifferent, and unaware of the effect of his/her behavior on the child.
    • This translates into behaviors like unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, ridiculing independent thinking, disturbing friendships, spoiling the child's interest in his/her own pursuits.
  • 7. When the Child Encounters Basic Evil
    • The first reaction is hostility
    • But, as the child needs the parent, and hostility threatens that bond, hostility is repressed.
    • The repression of basic hostility results in basic anxiety : feeling lonely and helpless in a hostile world.
  • 8. I Am not Worthy to Be Loved
    • The " despised real self " says: I am truly a disgraceful creature, a bad person, someone no one can truly love…
  • 9. But I Should…
    • The ideal self says: people would love you if you were kinder, more athletic, more outgoing, more unselfish, a better friend, parent, mate. They would love you if you were more courageous, more disciplined, achieved more…
    • This is a neurotic solution to the conflict --as no one can be such a person.
  • 10. The Tyranny of the Shoulds
    • A person can be driven by these demands of the ideal self.
    • As these demands are impossible, the attempts to satisfy the "shoulds" is bound to fail.
    • Thus self hate and feelings of false guilt increase, as well as despair and helplessness.
  • 11. Alienation from the Self
    • When succumbing to the tyranny of the "shoulds" individuals will:
      • Hate themselves, not want to really know themselves, want to run from themselves
      • Loose their own creativity as they strive to please
      • Despair, and feel helpless in the face of their own behavior.
  • 12. Horney's Concept of the Self
    • The actual self : the person you actually are --regardless of anyone's perceptions
    • The real self : the core of your being, your potential, the need to be who you are truly (the subjective view of the actual self).
    • The despised real self : negative view of the self, based on the lack of love and acceptance by others
    • The ideal self : the perfect self you think you should be, so you can be loved.
  • 13. How can I keep you from hurting me?
    • I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming, self-effacing solution, moving toward people
    • I'll control things, manipulate, exploit, attack if needed: the expansive solution of moving against people
    • I'll grow my own protective shell, be independent, rebellious, or not look at painful things: the resignation solution: moving away from people
  • 14. If those Defensive Strategies Become a Life Style
    • Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT personality with these traits:
      • Need for affection and approval
      • Need for a dominant partner
    • Moving against people leads to an AGGRESSIVE personality with these traits:
      • Need for power, exploitation, prestige, admiration
      • Need for achievement
    • Moving away from people lead to a DETACHED personality with these traits:
      • Need for perfection
      • Setting narrow limits to life
  • 15. Some Auxiliary Defenses(1)
    • Externalization: other people become the center of the neurotic's life. Hence, feeling of inner emptiness.
    • Creation of blind spots: inability to see how different one is from one's ideal image
    • Compartmentalization between various areas of life ex: business, family, church
  • 16. Auxiliary Defenses (2)
    • Rationalization: ex: I did this to make them happy (no--to make them like you)
    • Excessive self-control: don't want to be caught in any emotion, vulnerability
    • Arbitrary rightness: seemingly impulsive decisions (to avoid the pain of real decision making) that are then rationalized.
    • Elusiveness: constant clouding of issues
    • Cynicism: assuming that self-interest is the only motivation in operation, and therefore behaving that way oneself.
  • 17. Karen Horney's Religious Background
    • Karen and her brother Brendt called their father the "Bible-thrower" because he would literally throw the Bible at his wife on occasion.
    • Karen's father --though being a sea-captain-- had a rigid form of religion and was very strict. Karen's mother was more flexible.
  • 18. About her Confirmation
    • Karen Horney wrote in her diary: "Confirmation was no blessing for me. On the contrary, it was a great piece of hypocrisy, for I professed belief in the teachings of Christ, the doctrine of love, while carrying hatred in my heart (and for my nearest at that [her father]). I felt too weak to follow Christ. Yet I long for the faith, firm as a rock, that makes oneself and others happy."
  • 19. Family Dynamics
    • Karen had on-going conflicts with their father -- though she ended up marrying someone that shared some of these same authoritarian qualities.
    • Brendt, her older brother was the preferred one. Karen felt that she had been unwanted. Karen was very attached to Brendt.
  • 20. Depression
    • Karen Horney struggled much with depression.
    • Her own struggles and difficulties helped her understand the dynamics of neurosis.
    • Her analysis of neurosis has been recognized as most insightful, and her theories are enjoying a renewal of interest.
  • 21. The End