Horney called this inner battle the "tyranny of the shoulds" and the neurotic's "striving for glory". These two impossible selves prevent the neurotic from ever reaching their potential.
INTRODUCTION:Karen Danielsen Horney was born in Germany on September 16, 1885.She was one of the few prominent female personality theorists from the firsthalf of the 20th Century.She added social factors to the basic ideas of Freuds theory.Horneys approach is called psychosocial analysis,She emphasized on the emotional relations between parent and child early inthe childs life.In 1906 she entered medical school.She married Oscar Horney, a Berlin lawyer and economist, in 1909.Her early letters to Oskar reflected her interest in the theories of Alfred Adler.Karen was especially intrigued by Adlers ideas of inferiority and self-confidence
EARLY LI FE OF KAREN HORNEYKaren Horney dealt with depression early in life. Her father was a strict anddisciplinarian and she was very close to her older brother, Berndt and when hedistanced himself from her, Horney became depressed.The death of her mother and then brother in 1911 and 1923 were extremelydifficult for Horney.She graduated from the University of Berlin in 1915. She joined the BerlinPsychoanalytic Institute in 1918, and the following year she started her privatepractice.Freudians trained her but she never knew Freud personally.
CAREERHorneys theory is perhaps the best theory of neurosis. she offered a differentway of viewing neurosis.She saw it as much more continuous with normal life than previous theorists. Specifically, she saw neurosis as an attempt to make life bearable, as a way of"interpersonal control and coping.".In her clinical experience, she discerned ten particular patterns of neuroticneeds.While Horney followed much of Sigmund Freuds theory, she disagreedwith his views on female psychology. She rejected his concept of penis envy,declaring it to be both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Horney insteadproposed the concept of womb envy in which men experience feelings ofinferiority because they cannot give birth to children.Her further works includes self-theory, neurotic needs and femininepsychology.
SELF- THEORYHorney believed that the self is the core of ones being, their potential. If one hasan accurate conception of themselves, they are free to realize their potential.The healthy persons real self is aimed at reaching their self-actualizationthroughout life.The neurotics self is split, however, into an ideal self and adespised self.Ones ideal self is created when one feels they are lacking in some area of life andare not living up to the ideals that they should be. What they "should" be is theirideal. This ideal self is not a positive goal, nor is it realistic or possible.The despised self, on the other hand, is the feeling that one is hated by all aroundthem; one assumes that this hated being is their true self. The neurotic,therefore, swings back and forth between pretending to be perfect and hatingthemselves.
HORNEY’S LIST OF NEUROTIC NEEDSPsychoanalytic theorist Karen Horney developed one of the best known theories ofneurosis. She believed that neurosis resulted from basic anxiety caused by interpersonalrelationships. Her theory proposes that strategies used to cope with anxiety can beoverused, causing them to take on the appearance of needs.These 10 neurotic needs can be classed into three broad categories:Needs that move you towards others. Needs that move you away from others.Needs that move you against others.Well-adjusted individuals utilize all three of these strategies, shifting focus depending oninternal and external factors. Neurotic people tend to utilize two or more of these ways of coping, creating conflict,turmoil, and confusion.
In her book “self-analysis”(1942) , HORNEY outlined the 10 neurotic needs shehad identified:1. The Neurotic Need for Affection and Approval2. The Neurotic Need for a Partner Who Will Take Over One’s Life3. The Neurotic Need to Restrict One’s Life Within Narrow Borders4. The Neurotic Need for Power5. The Neurotic Need to Exploit Others6. The Neurotic Need for Prestige7. The Neurotic Need for Personal Admiration8. The Neurotic Need for Personal Achievement9. The Neurotic Need for Self-Sufficiency and Independence10.The Neurotic Need for Perfection and Unassailability
FEMININE PSYCHOLOGYKaren Horney argued that psychoanalysis regarded women as defective menbecause it is the product of a male genius (Freud) and a male-dominated culture. She believed that the womb envy of the male must be stronger than the so-called penis envy of the female, since men need to depreciate women more thanwomen need to depreciate men.Horney traced the male dread of woman to the boy’s fear that his genital isinadequate in relation to the mother. The threat posed by woman is not castrationbut humiliation; the threat is to his masculine self-regard. As he grows up, the male continues to have a deeply hidden anxiety about thesize of his penis or his potency, an anxiety that has no counterpart for the female.The male deals with his anxiety by erecting an ideal of efficiency, by seeking sexualconquests, and by debasing the love object.
Horney also wrote an essay entitled “The Overvaluation of Love” (1934). It isreported to be the culmination of Horney’s attempt to analyze herself in terms offeminine psychology. “Our culture, as is well known, is a male culture, and therefore by and large notfavorable to the unfolding of woman and her individuality... No matter howmuch the individual woman may be treasured as a mother or as a lover, it isalways the male who will be considered more valuable on human and spiritualgrounds. The little girl grows up under this general impression. (Horney, 1967,p.82)