Karen  Horney  (1885-1952)
Is Karen Horney a Freudian? <ul><li>Like Freud, she believed in the importance of unconscious motivation, of sexual matter...
The Oedipal Conflict <ul><li>was seen more in terms of the social interaction within the family, the conflicts, patterns o...
Gender Envy <ul><li>Karen Horney denied the importance of  penis envy  (girls wishing they had a penis as Freud proposed) ...
The Cause of Neurosis <ul><li>Karen Horney thought the main source of neurosis lied in the  experience of betrayal , of no...
What is Basic Evil? <ul><li>Basic evil  is a lack of genuine warmth and affection for the child. The parent is not so much...
When the Child Encounters Basic Evil <ul><li>The first reaction is  hostility </li></ul><ul><li>But, as the child needs th...
I Am not Worthy to Be Loved <ul><li>The &quot; despised real self &quot; says: I am truly a disgraceful creature, a bad pe...
But I Should… <ul><li>The ideal self  says: people would love you if you were kinder, more athletic, more outgoing, more u...
The Tyranny of the Shoulds <ul><li>A person can be driven by these demands of the ideal self. </li></ul><ul><li>As these d...
Alienation from the Self <ul><li>When succumbing to the tyranny of the &quot;shoulds&quot; individuals will: </li></ul><ul...
Horney's Concept of the Self <ul><li>The actual self : the person you actually are --regardless of anyone's perceptions </...
How can I keep you from hurting me? <ul><li>I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming,  self-effacing  solution,  moving toward...
If those Defensive Strategies Become a Life Style <ul><li>Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT personality with these...
Some Auxiliary Defenses(1) <ul><li>Externalization:  other people become the center of the neurotic's life. Hence, feeling...
Auxiliary Defenses (2) <ul><li>Rationalization: ex: I did this to make them happy (no--to make them like you) </li></ul><u...
Karen Horney's Religious Background <ul><li>Karen and her brother Brendt called their father the &quot;Bible-thrower&quot;...
About her Confirmation <ul><li>Karen Horney wrote in her diary:  &quot;Confirmation was no blessing for me. On the contrar...
Family Dynamics <ul><li>Karen had on-going conflicts with their father -- though she ended up marrying someone that shared...
Depression <ul><li>Karen Horney struggled much with depression.  </li></ul><ul><li>Her own struggles and difficulties help...
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Psicología educativa segundo parcial

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Psicología educativa segundo parcial

  1. 1. Karen Horney (1885-1952)
  2. 2. Is Karen Horney a Freudian? <ul><li>Like Freud, she believed in the importance of unconscious motivation, of sexual matters, but she believed that Freud overstressed biology </li></ul><ul><li>Her view of human beings is more optimistic </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Oedipal Conflict <ul><li>was seen more in terms of the social interaction within the family, the conflicts, patterns of dominance etc… </li></ul><ul><li>It involves clinging, jealousy etc… like Freud, but for different reasons: the child is negotiating his/her place in the family </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gender Envy <ul><li>Karen Horney denied the importance of penis envy (girls wishing they had a penis as Freud proposed) --when it occurs, it is more a matter of social comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>Horney introduces (perhaps somewhat tongue in cheek), the concept of womb envy --males wishing they could give birth to a child. </li></ul><ul><li>Sees the fact that one gender might envy some feature of the other, as cultural rather than biological. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Cause of Neurosis <ul><li>Karen Horney thought the main source of neurosis lied in the experience of betrayal , of not being loved, and being helpless to bring about that love, and not in the dynamics of the Oedipal conflict. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Basic Evil? <ul><li>Basic evil is a lack of genuine warmth and affection for the child. The parent is not so much abusive as indifferent, and unaware of the effect of his/her behavior on the child. </li></ul><ul><li>This translates into behaviors like unjust reproaches, unpredictable changes between overindulgence and scornful rejection, unfulfilled promises, ridiculing independent thinking, disturbing friendships, spoiling the child's interest in his/her own pursuits. </li></ul>
  7. 7. When the Child Encounters Basic Evil <ul><li>The first reaction is hostility </li></ul><ul><li>But, as the child needs the parent, and hostility threatens that bond, hostility is repressed. </li></ul><ul><li>The repression of basic hostility results in basic anxiety : feeling lonely and helpless in a hostile world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. I Am not Worthy to Be Loved <ul><li>The &quot; despised real self &quot; says: I am truly a disgraceful creature, a bad person, someone no one can truly love… </li></ul>
  9. 9. But I Should… <ul><li>The ideal self says: people would love you if you were kinder, more athletic, more outgoing, more unselfish, a better friend, parent, mate. They would love you if you were more courageous, more disciplined, achieved more… </li></ul><ul><li>This is a neurotic solution to the conflict --as no one can be such a person. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Tyranny of the Shoulds <ul><li>A person can be driven by these demands of the ideal self. </li></ul><ul><li>As these demands are impossible, the attempts to satisfy the &quot;shoulds&quot; is bound to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus self hate and feelings of false guilt increase, as well as despair and helplessness. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Alienation from the Self <ul><li>When succumbing to the tyranny of the &quot;shoulds&quot; individuals will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hate themselves, not want to really know themselves, want to run from themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose their own creativity as they strive to please </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Despair, and feel helpless in the face of their own behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Horney's Concept of the Self <ul><li>The actual self : the person you actually are --regardless of anyone's perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>The real self : the core of your being, your potential, the need to be who you are truly (the subjective view of the actual self). </li></ul><ul><li>The despised real self : negative view of the self, based on the lack of love and acceptance by others </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal self : the perfect self you think you should be, so you can be loved. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How can I keep you from hurting me? <ul><li>I'll be so nice… helpful, conforming, self-effacing solution, moving toward people </li></ul><ul><li>I'll control things, manipulate, exploit, attack if needed: the expansive solution of moving against people </li></ul><ul><li>I'll grow my own protective shell, be independent, rebellious, or not look at painful things: the resignation solution: moving away from people </li></ul>
  14. 14. If those Defensive Strategies Become a Life Style <ul><li>Moving toward people leads to a COMPLIANT personality with these traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for affection and approval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for a dominant partner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving against people leads to an AGGRESSIVE personality with these traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for power, exploitation, prestige, admiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving away from people lead to a DETACHED personality with these traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for perfection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting narrow limits to life </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Some Auxiliary Defenses(1) <ul><li>Externalization: other people become the center of the neurotic's life. Hence, feeling of inner emptiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of blind spots: inability to see how different one is from one's ideal image </li></ul><ul><li>Compartmentalization between various areas of life ex: business, family, church </li></ul>
  16. 16. Auxiliary Defenses (2) <ul><li>Rationalization: ex: I did this to make them happy (no--to make them like you) </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive self-control: don't want to be caught in any emotion, vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary rightness: seemingly impulsive decisions (to avoid the pain of real decision making) that are then rationalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Elusiveness: constant clouding of issues </li></ul><ul><li>Cynicism: assuming that self-interest is the only motivation in operation, and therefore behaving that way oneself. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Karen Horney's Religious Background <ul><li>Karen and her brother Brendt called their father the &quot;Bible-thrower&quot; because he would literally throw the Bible at his wife on occasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Karen's father --though being a sea-captain-- had a rigid form of religion and was very strict. Karen's mother was more flexible. </li></ul>
  18. 18. About her Confirmation <ul><li>Karen Horney wrote in her diary: &quot;Confirmation was no blessing for me. On the contrary, it was a great piece of hypocrisy, for I professed belief in the teachings of Christ, the doctrine of love, while carrying hatred in my heart (and for my nearest at that [her father]). I felt too weak to follow Christ. Yet I long for the faith, firm as a rock, that makes oneself and others happy.&quot; </li></ul>
  19. 19. Family Dynamics <ul><li>Karen had on-going conflicts with their father -- though she ended up marrying someone that shared some of these same authoritarian qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>Brendt, her older brother was the preferred one. Karen felt that she had been unwanted. Karen was very attached to Brendt. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Depression <ul><li>Karen Horney struggled much with depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Her own struggles and difficulties helped her understand the dynamics of neurosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Her analysis of neurosis has been recognized as most insightful, and her theories are enjoying a renewal of interest. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The End

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