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Moving Library Metadata Toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the eXtensible Catalog

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Presented at DCMI-2010, a conference of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, in Pittsburgh, PA, on October 20, 2010

Presented at DCMI-2010, a conference of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, in Pittsburgh, PA, on October 20, 2010

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    Moving Library Metadata Toward Linked Data:  Opportunities Provided by the eXtensible Catalog Moving Library Metadata Toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the eXtensible Catalog Presentation Transcript

    • Moving Library Metadata toward Linked Data: Opportunities Provided by the eXtensible Catalog
      Jennifer Bowen, University of Rochester
      DC-2010 Conference
      October 20, 2010, Pittsburgh, PA
    • About me…
      Currently:
      • Librarian
      • Technical services administrator
      • Software development team co-leader
      Formerly:
      • Cataloger (MARC)
      • Standards developer (RDA)
      Maybe someday…Linked Data Expert?
      2
    • My Topics Today
      3
      Is it feasible to turn legacy library MARC metadata into Linked Data in an automated environment,
      and,
      How can eXtensible Catalog (XC) software play a role in that process?
      Image source: www.blog.kdl.org
    • Semantic Web and Linked Data
      Semantic Web: a set of technologies that allow computers to understand the meaning of information on the web
      Linked Data: a mechanism for exposing, sharing and connecting data on the web, using identifiers and relationships
      4
    • Linked Data “Expectations of Behavior”
      • Use URIs as names for things
      • Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
      • When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
      • Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things.
      Tim Berners-Lee, “Design issues”, 2006
      http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
      5
    • Linked Data: RDF triple
      6
      Subject
      Object
      Predicate
      Jennifer Bowen
      This presentation
      has creator
    • A Reality Check
      “Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and AnjaJentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/”
      7
    • Teaching MARC metadata new tricks?
      8
      Image source: http://www.englishcafe.com/node/2337
    • Turning legacy data into Linked Data…
      How do we even get started?
      9
    • Getting Started
      To create Linked Data, we need:
      Software to transform legacy data
      Analysis: mapping of legacy metadata to Linked Data properties
      10
    • The software…
      11
      eXtensible Catalog (XC) is open source, user-centered, next generation software for libraries.
      XC provides a discovery system and a set of tools for libraries to manage metadata and build applications.
    • XC Software Components
      User Interface
      Website on Drupal CMS
      XC User Interface
      Metadata Processing
      Metadata Services Toolkit
      NCIPToolkit
      Connectivity tools
      OAI Toolkit
      Integrated Library System
      Repository
      12
    • XC’s original metadata goals
      • Aggregate MARC and other metadata for use in new applications
      • Define a FRBR-based metadata schema to support XC’s user-interface functionality
      • Create a software application to process batches of metadata through a set of services
      13
    • Software development:
      a moving target!
      14
    • XC and Linked Data
      How can XC help move legacy library metadata closer to Linked Data?
      NOT among XC’s original goals
      However, XC software creates an opportunity to contribute to this effort and provides important “lessons learned”
      15
    • Converting MARC to Linked Data
      What XC software can do:
      • Convert MARC codes to vocabulary values
      • Remove extraneous data
      • Normalize inconsistencies
      • Map most MARC fields/subfields and parse to appropriate FRBR Group 1 entity records
      16
    • Converting MARC to Linked Data
      Problematic areas:
      • Some MARC fields/subfields are difficult to map to appropriate FRBR entities
      • Tracking relationships between FRBR entity records: How many relationships can we support with XC software?
      17
    • MARC to XC Schema Transformation
      XC Work
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      XC Manifestation
      Parses MARCXML records into linked FRBR-based records
      Maps MARCXML data elements to Linked-Data-Compatible elements in the XC Schema.
    • Managing Relationships
      XC Work
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      XC Manifestation
    • Managing Relationships
      20
      XC Work
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      XC Manifestation
    • Issue: Managing Multiple Relationships
      21
      MARC bibliographic records can refer to multiple FRBR entities of the same type (analytics that represent multiple works/expressions, e.g. tracks on a CD)
      XC Work
      XC Work
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      XC Expression
      XC Manifestation
    • Issue: Beyond FRBR Group 1 Entities
      22
      MARC “Alternate Graphic Representation” (880 fields) can contain data that belong in records for Group 2 and Group 3 entities
      Contributor:
      700 1 ‡6 880-08 ‡a Vasil’ev, Maksim.
      880 1 ‡6 700-08 ‡a Васильев, Максим.
      Subject:
      600 10 ‡6 880-06 ‡a Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich, ‡d 1952-
      880 10 ‡6 600-06 ‡a Путин, Владимир Владимирович, ‡d 1952-
    • If we were to parse this 880 data correctly:
      23
      Contributor
      • Contributor in Cyrillic characters
      • Contributor in Roman characters
      Subject
      • Subject in Cyrillic characters
      • Subject in Roman characters
      XC Work
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      Alternative script of name from 880
      Alternative script of subject from 880
      XC Manifestation
    • Issue: Related Group 1 Entities
      Language attribute for a related expression
      041 1 ‡a eng ‡h ita
      100 0 ‡a Dante Alighieri, ‡d 1265-1321.
      240 10 ‡a Divina commedia. ‡l English
      245 14 ‡a The divine comedy / ‡c Dante ; a new verse translation by C.H. Sisson.
      500 ‡a Translation of: Divina commedia.
      24
    • If we were to parse 041 ‡h data…
      25
      Contributor
      • Contributor in Cyrillic characters
      • Contributor in Roman characters
      Subject
      • Subject in Cyrillic characters
      • Subject in Roman characters
      XC Work
      Original language from 041‡h
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      Alternative script of name from 880
      Alternative script of subject from 880
      Based on (Expression)
      XC Manifestation
    • Contributor
      • Contributor in Cyrillic characters
      • Contributor in Roman characters
      Managing Relationships Between Entities
      26
      Subject
      • Subject in Cyrillic characters
      • Subject in Roman characters
      Original language from 041 $h
      Alternative script of subject from 880
      Alternative script of name from 880
      Based on (Expression)
      XC Work
      MARCXML Bibliographic
      XC Expression
      XC Manifestation
    • Maintaining links between separate FRBR entity records in a production environment monopolizes system resources and may not be scalable.
      • new records
      • changed records
      • deleted records
      • changed relationships
      What we are learning from XC
      27
      XC Work
      XC Expression
      XC Manifestation
    • 28
      But wait…
      What does this emphasis on FRBR have to do with Linked Data?
      If we can map a MARC data element to a FRBR entity, we can probably convert it to Linked Data.
      FRBR Group 1 Entities
    • 29
      But do we have to?
      • Do we have to be able to map MARC elements to a FRBR entity in order to create Linked Data?
      • Would managing RDF triples be more scalable than managing FRBR-based records and the relationships between those records?
    • Best Practices for Linked Data
      By attempting to follow best practices in XC for Linked Data, we hope to facilitate eventual output of XC metadata in RDF.
      • Unique identifiers for XC metadata records
      • Data elements from registered schemas
      • Registered vocabularies
      30
    • RDF Triple
      31
      Subject
      Object
      Predicate
      Poets, American
      This resource
      has subject
      URIs for each?
    • RDF Triple – Record identifiers
      32
      Subject
      Object
      Predicate
      oai:mst.rochester.edu: MST/
      MARCToXCTransformation/
      10081
      This resource
      has subject
      Poets, American
    • Identifiers for XC Schema records
      33
      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><xc:frbrxmlns:xc="http://www.extensiblecatalog.info/Elements" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:rdvocab="http://rdvocab.info/Elements" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rdarole="http://rdvocab.info/roles"><xc:entity type="work" id="oai:mst.rochester.edu:MST/MARCToXCTransformation/10081"><dcterms:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCC">PS3505.U334</dcterms:subject><dcterms:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:DDC">811/.52</dcterms:subject><dcterms:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:DDC">B</dcterms:subject><rdarole:author>Sawyer-Lauc<U+0327>anno, Christopher, 1951-</rdarole:author><rdvocab:titleOfTheWork>E.E. Cummings :</rdvocab:titleOfTheWork><xc:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCSH">Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1962.</xc:subject><xc:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCSH">Poets, American-20th century-Biography.</xc:subject></xc:entity></xc:frbr>
      A persistent, globally unique identifier for each XC Schema record
    • RDF Triple - Registered Data Elements
      34
      Subject
      Object
      Predicate
      oai:mst.rochester.edu: MST/
      MARCToXCTransformation/
      10081
      This resource
      has subject
      Poets, American
      http://www.
      extensiblecatalog.info/Elements/subject
    • 35
      DCMI
    • 36
      RDA
    • 37
      XC
    • XC Schema “work” record: data elements
      38
      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><xc:frbrxmlns:xc="http://www.extensiblecatalog.info/Elements" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:rdvocab="http://rdvocab.info/Elements" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:rdarole="http://rdvocab.info/roles"><xc:entity type="work" id="oai:mst.rochester.edu:MST/MARCToXCTransformation/10081"><dcterms:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCC">PS3505.U334</dcterms:subject><dcterms:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:DDC">811/.52</dcterms:subject><dcterms:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:DDC">B</dcterms:subject><rdarole:author>Sawyer-Lauc<U+0327>anno, Christopher, 1951-</rdarole:author><rdvocab:titleOfTheWork>E.E. Cummings :</rdvocab:titleOfTheWork><xc:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCSH">Cummings, E. E. (Edward Estlin), 1894-1962.</xc:subject><xc:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCSH">Poets, American-20th century-Biography.</xc:subject></xc:entity></xc:frbr>
      Data elements from registered namespaces for DC terms, RDA roles and vocab, and XC
    • RDF Triple - Registered Vocabularies
      39
      Subject
      Object
      Predicate
      oai:mst.rochester.edu: MST/
      MARCToXCTransformation/
      10081
      http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh85103735#concept
      This resource
      has subject
      Poets, American
      http://www.
      extensiblecatalog.info/Elements/subject
    • 40
      XC Work record with embedded URI for LCSH “Poets, American”
      <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><xc:frbrxmlns:xc="http://www.extensiblecatalog.info/Elements" … xmlns:subjid=“id.loc.gov/authorities”>
      <xc:entity type="work" id="oai:mst.rochester.edu:MST/MARCToXCTransformation/10081">…<xc:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCSH">Poets, American-20th century-Biography.</xc:subject>
      <xc:subjectxsi:type="dcterms:LCSH” subjid=“sh85103735#concept”>Poets, American</xc:subject>
      <xc:temporal>20th century</xc:temporal>
      <xc:type>Biography</xc:type>
      </xc:entity>…
    • RDF Triple
      41
      Subject
      Object
      Predicate
      oai:mst.rochester.edu: MST/
      MARCToXCTransformation/
      10081
      http://id.loc.gov/authorities/sh85103735#concept
      This resource
      has subject
      Poets, American
      http://www.
      extensiblecatalog.info/Elements/subject
    • Experimenting with Linked Data
      • Within a MARC or MARCXML environment?
      • Possible to give each record a URI
      • MARC elements themselves don’t have URIs
      • How to embed multiple URIs for registered vocabularies in MARC?
      42
      • XC enables experimentation outside of a MARC environment with data that originated as MARC
    • Making Linked Data a Priority for XC
      Balancing goals
      Time/funding constraints
      What’s our use case?
      Output of Linked Data from XC vs.
      Using Linked Data within XC?
      43
    • XC Linked Data Accomplishments
      XC has set the stage for Linked Data by:
      • Providing a platform for creating Linked Data using XC software
      • Ensuring that XC Schema records can be converted to RDF triples as easily as possible
      • Enabling others to build upon what we have accomplished done so far.
      44
    • Next Steps
      • Monitor RDA implementations
      • Develop XC authority control service
      • Enable RDF output of XC Schema metadata
      • Encourage libraries to use XC software and contribute to the XC user community
      • Seek funding for additional software development
      45
    • Thank you! Questions?
      www.eXtensiblecatalog.org
      Jennifer Bowen
      jbowen@library.rochester.edu