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City report City report Document Transcript

  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     The Future City Representation New Indron City MOY CHIN HOONG 0314014 FNBE April 2013
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     Content: 1. Introduction 2. A City 3. Investigation & Data Collection: The Ancient cities 4. Investigation & Data Collection: The present city/cities 5. Investigation & Data Collection: The future city/cities 6. The “X” City 7. The New “X” City / Or the new name 8. The Process and Progress 9. The Conclusion 10. References list
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     1. Introduction The purpose, development and the fundamental component of the elements of the natural and built environment has been explored and either the symbiotic relationship. However, the force between natural and built environment also been examine and question in this project. To make a great city, we will need to refer back to the ancient cities to interpret all the weaknesses and make it better in the future city. We need to explore and gather information from the past, present and future cities to help us out in understanding a city and planning our new X city in this project. This project is strongly related to this module (Natural and Built Environment) because we can learn how to analyze the different development of built environment when we are planning the natural elements in our city.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     2. The City 2.1 The city definition What’s a city? A city is made up from a small town that gathers more and more people into that particular town until it becomes a large town, which called a city. City is usually the center of a place, which having a large population compared to the urban area or suburb. A city is a lifelong accommodation or settlement for people to live in, work, leisure and so on. Besides, it had also become a place for socialization, this is due to it gathers the people from all around the corner and different places to gather together. Furthermore, every city consists of the different cultures and histories. The city may also bring out some arts and civilization. For examples, the landmarks or buildings in the city will display out the specialty of that city.  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     2.2 What makes a city?   A city is like a human being, which is made up from many parts and it needs to sustain itself. A city is also like a growing child, it started as a neighborhood, then it grows to become a suburb then a town and finally it becomes a city. A complex city will need a complex system in order to be livable and sustainable. There are some necessary systems such as the road systems, land usage, transportation, sanitation, utilities and housing are required to build up a city. The population of the city will definitely increase if these systems in the city are good and vice versa. On the other hand, a city will also need to provide the enough spaces for the residential, education, business, leisure and recreation as well. The city will not be as lively as we wish without these services.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     2.3 What makes a good city? We should refer to the weaknesses of the past cities and transform it to a better city. First, a good city must have a good transportation system and infrastructures. A good transportation system must be easy and convenient to use. Besides that, it also has to be fast, safe, clean and affordable for everyone one especially for the public transports. The public transports like Light Rail Transit (LRT), tram, rapid buses, taxicab, ferry and etcetera are an essential part for those white collars. So, the public transports must be good for them especially for those who cannot afford to buy a car, or else they can just be able to look for the job only within walking distance from their houses. Furthermore, a good town planning is also important to make a good city. Why is this so? This is because of the zoning of the city. A good planning have to be done before building the city. Many of the cities are having the problems of sound and air pollutions due to the industrial areas are built in the center of the city or even residential areas. The industrial areas should be built far away from the city center or residential areas to avoid these from happening. Besides, recreation area should be built all around the city in order to make the city looks alive. Last but not least, greenery city should be promoted now because of the thinning of ozone layer. Thus, plants should be planted all around the city to make the city looks green and it will definitely help to reduce the hotness in the city.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     2.4 What is the future city? Changes occur all the time. Some changes occur without giving any warning but some can be anticipated to a certain extent, as what happen to our city every second every moment. With all these changes how will our future city be? I do not know about the others’ thought but for sure I always dream about my ideal future city. In the future city, there may be flying cars, which can replace the petrol cars. Those people can cross obstacles like river, mountain and jungle easily with the flying car. Next, technologies are invented to help people in their daily life. So, I wish there are robot workers such as robot maid and even chefs. With this rapid development of the world, soon the land will become more and more crowded and finally there will be no more spaces left for further developments. Thus, the underwater cities should be invented in the future to fulfill the needs of people and the significant increase of the population. No one can be sure what the future might be. The likelihood is that certain things will happen but there is always a possibility of something else happening too. So the best is prepared for what seems certain and leave a bit room for something else, who knows?
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     3. Investigation & Data Collection: Ancient City City: Baghdad Iraq 3.1 The History Baghdad is first built on 30 July 762, which is the capital state of the Republic of Iraq. It is the largest city in Iraq, but the second largest city in the Arab world and also in Western Asia. The name of the city – Baghdad actually bring out another meaning that came from the ancient Persian. The ancient Persian stated that the “bagh” has the meaning of god whereas the “dad” has the meaning of gift, which both of them combined together will become “The gift of God …” Baghdad is designed as a circle, which around 2km in diameter and this led it to be known as the “Round City”. It has the total area of 204.2km2 (78.8 sq mi) with the population of 7,216,040 according to the latest statistic in 2011 AD. 3.2 What makes it a significant city and what are the details? The significant of Baghdad City is the availability of water and the decreasing dangers of flooding, which expand the city as well as easy contact across the Tigris by bridges that link the river. Baghdad is also known for poets, writers and artists, where the cultural movement began to emerge building the city as one of the more powerful in cultures and arts among the Arab capitals.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     3.3 Conclusion about the city The Baghdad City is started at the early of 8th century until today, 2013. It has been thousands years of history which has brought out a lot of arts and cultures. The Abbasid dynasty has slowly started to lose its power after ruling the city for about 500 years and finally the city is taken over by the Muslims. 3.4 What information or element that you can use to your new future city? The Round City of Baghdad, which started in 762 CE, 8th century. It is one of the ancient cities in Baghdad and also the original core of Baghdad. The Round City is also known as The City of Peace. This City is designed in a round shape due to its geometry shape. The residential and commercial buildings are built in a ring-like form along the structural wall in the city. The circular design has directly showed the urban design as well. The design of the layout in this city has been taken as a reference to build my future underwater city. The  layout  view  of  the  Round   City   The  layout  plan  of  my  city  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     4. Investigation & data collection: Present City City: Tulsa, Oklahoma 4.1 The history Tulsa, the second-largest city in Oklahoma and the 45th -largest city in United State. It was first settled down in 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. It was an originally part of Indian Territory. The Lochapoka and Creek tribes built a house under a large oak tree at the intersection point of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th street. The place was first named as “Tallasi” which is the old town in Creek language and finally become the “Tulsa” now. Tulsa was officially incorporated and elected the first mayor, Edward Calkins on 18th January 1898. Tulsa is also known as the “Oil Capital of the World” due to its vital role in American Oil Industry. The  View  of  Tulsa,  Oklahoma.  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     4.2 Information or elements that used to my new future city The new bridge (I-244) is one of the Oklahoma’s most unique and the only one double-decker bridge in the state. The top deck is for the vehicles and the lower deck is the space special for two commuter rails and foot traffic. The concept of the double-decker bridge is used in my city, which connected all the 3 blocks together. The upper part will be 6 lanes traffic for the vehicles and down below will be the space for two Bullet Trains. Besides, the way which Tulsa arranged the city is very well organized. I had also taken this into the reference of building my city.   The Double-Decker Bridge designed by me I-­‐244  Bridge  in  Tulsa,  Oklahoma.     MTTA Transit Station VisitTulsa.com Down  town  map  of  Tulsa   City  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     5. Investigation & Data Collection: Future City Underwater Condos 5.1 About the Future Underwater Condos The Condos is built under the water with all the windows around, which enable people to enjoy the full view under the water. The condo could even fix lights around the bones of the Sligo to let their residents watch the salmon schooling at night around the underwater landmark off the western waterfront. 5.2 What information or elements that I can use for my new future city? I have taken the idea of surround the hotel suits by all windows and transferred it into my city. I covered my city with all windows to allow my citizens to enjoy the beauty of the underwater. The  suits  is  fully  covered  by   windows   The  people  can  enjoy  the  beauty  of  underwater  by  just  looking  out  the  windows.  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     6. The “X” city 6.1 The history My X city is named as “Indron Island” due to its heavily dependent on the industrial and which the name is also the combination of the “industry” and my grandfather’s name – “Ron”. It was first settled by my grandfather, Ron King (a Chinese) in 1924. The city is an island located on the northwest coast of Malaysia and is about 20km far from to Malaysia. It has a total area of 1048km2 (405 sq mi) with a population of 700,000. For most of the 20th century, the Indron Island is also known as the “Ceramics Capital”, which the city has played a major role as one of the biggest players in the ceramics industry. Everything is going well until 2033, which is my turn to become the mayor. It is a fast development world now and every single country is working hard to invent all those high-technology stuffs like laser gun instead of using bullets, high-tech nuclear which will make all the particles into dusts, flying car and so on. It’s too bad to say that one of the scientists in my city has invented the high-tech nuclear and the scientist has accidentally bombed the nuclear during an experiment. About 700km2 of my city is fully destroyed and more than half the people is dead.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     6.2 The people and population religion The people in my city mostly are Malaysian because the city island is near to Malaysia, and thus many Malaysian came to my city to look for the job opportunities. Some of these people have been settled down during the early development of the Indron Island. This also means that there are several kinds of religion in my city such as Malay, Chinese and Indian. For most of the Malay are being Muslims. The Muslims cannot convert into the other religions because of the Shari’a courts denying conversion claims. They will lose their status as a “bumiputera” if they converted. They also have to pray 5 times a day. Besides, there are Chinese populations which usually having the religion of either Buddhism or Daoism. The Buddhism needs to practice devotion as an important part in their life. Furthermore, Hinduism is practiced by most of the Indian in my city. Hinduism has the similarity with the Muslims, which they cannot convert into the other religions. If they did so, their family and the Indian community will keep them at the arm’s length.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     6.3 The needs of the citizens The industrial in the city has caused some effects towards the society. For examples, air pollution is the worst pollution in my city. This is because of the heavy production of the industry. Some of the industry even built just right beside the residential areas. This is definitely not healthy for the residents. Beside the air pollution, sound pollution is also one of the factors occurred frequently in the city. Other than the pollution problems, traffic jam also causes a lot of problems in the city. Everyone manages to own a car due to the rapid growth of the technology. Thus, the number of cars increased significantly. People always stuck in the traffic jam and late to work or school in this situation. This makes them need to leave earlier from the house. A good condition of public transportation is needed to solve this problem. 6.4 What would be a good future city for them? The people will need a pollution free, zero traffic jam, convenient and greenery city in the future. This is due to the heavily polluted and noisy old city they lived in. They will wish to have a free pollution city because of their own health problems. They will stay healthy all the time without all these pollution. Besides, the convenient city will allow them to travel easily from one place to another. Furthermore, greenery cities should be promoted in the future because of the rapid development. The rapid development has caused more and more trees being copped down. Thus we should promote a greenery city in the future.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     6.5 Conclusion of my city Since the old city has been bombed out, we will need to move to another new city due to the old city is no longer livable. Thus, me as the mayor of the city will bring all the survivors to move to the new city – underwater city.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     7. The New Indron City 7.1 How did you come out with the solution to create the new city? The most critical problem occurred while building the new city is how the air going to be transported into the city underwater and the air must be in suitable quality? Some ideas came out at first such as generate itself and transfer from the water surface. This problem is finally settled by building a big tube from the underwater to the surface of water to collect air and then the air is filtered before giving out to the city. The second problem happened in the process is the pollution caused by the industrial. It is impossible that there is no industry in one city. So I can only come out with the solution by separating the industrial and town hall in different blocks. Thus, the pollutions will not cause any effects on the places in the town hall like residential area, school and hospital. Besides, there is another problem occurred during the construction, which is how my citizens going escape if the enemies cut off all the bridges (only way to run away) and attack my city block by block? What are the emergency escapes? I have come out with the solution when my tutor mentioned about submarine. I have changed the structure of my city into a submarine concept, which the whole city is surrounded by a water tank. This water tank allows the city to float up to the water surface during emergency and allow the citizens to escape.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     7.2 What is the important characteristic and elements in my city? One of the characteristics in my city is that my city is built in layers. The upper most layer will be the city then the middle one will be the railway tracks and the down part or outermost layer will be the water tank and protection layer. Besides the city structure, my bridges are also built in layers, which the upper layer is for the vehicles while the lower part is for trains. Other than these, my town hall is very well organized by separating the building areas by areas. S$ $ I( * d, v$l--trs) is$i f $d-El $st; $$r$ aog dc( e9o =l6d t-t , t s- { s v ..X s R. {Y. $a,:t?-*-,,*r**'..',:;,, &t s I .-F: VT T $ b t t s t R{ {r LI tr E LI tr d IIJ Itrt 99gc,eoOo€ 9eoa.dscg View  of  the  structure  for  my  city   :' ,l The  zoning  of  my  city  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     8. The process & progress 4wty ,f ^w /* fl,rN eq ? 7,(/ dutahl k ,xry,r#d q *lu 4an*a* fL{ I G t .' .: -',. r?- -1.:.- rY' Y 0l/ A/ "I afi.&,.t &q.de*,Jru{ * x& t "r. o*r IC -o,eo 3; ( ,..-" ,-, '} {+ 4cet&nbf J*rr* 4 * *"y drt .acvtturua/. {t tit ,$tt,4ol f &Virar rAwg f,l 'lt$ ruk) g'{y The  reason  why  I  move  to  new  city  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     rtlalit trand * t hr#rd d qy*urto *rfu*r . q Usl wlht alfuq/ eq N4eut a4 ,{, ae / Sltxot-att at Vlrt.t fr$ 4*#lud N*, frnat *raaaa//7gr dal,,*td Are e&ftt4 t Researches  about  my  new  city  (underwater)  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     v--- I I --' -I>-'-:= 7' . {At,*,J*t" . ',/---.-.----/ I 14*rl ftv"t a (autlr4tl ,- 'b* .lahq 6L*t ., tt*.* , --.--''/'t' First  sketch  of  the  layout  of  my  city  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     Dor,u, oA , n Cy,,tt / 4/tr /nr,?-r-/ ()", , ^-ud * J uo, Guo Yh 7A 49: 14, / ) A<z</a -?L( 4f/a,4 a 7"**( 4rua ) ",*/ sf|.wot fua , frnJ*t Z*n {art lf ha,, #a#t,"t ,rth'ti (an41o/rrf *'Y &'oc{. w,{l',-{ h,*4 A t-f/ et,z<tz-L{ t. t t I fa {e iy'*n, u {,wta_ -k ,%' /r, /dp a t*/a e? */ a o /sr' Cerui,*, ), ! / ffi7, Second  sketch  of  the  layout  of  my  city  with  more  information.    
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     /4V ou f 6 *na'rt sfc,i"*{ '3 /.LL.A 6 / a_<_h-| , E;.oaa!11* Qtwafirl TL^,fi* 7ufu /" Oor/tey' ai* flr" aovz U /0v11 t 7un,tt / or/' hd I A/A! fu ooutt/ a4 fu6 bdit d 9oU - ta4oa/.,i1 ", ,l ,. Qn a/"r Flte{"uE { Qrnr*o $* LY uo{r^ t4rl,hZ }, ,r-l_/ tr .,. / .1 K l,/{ rtt *U -ury*r r/ M{t , -f Z* 4" ait- 44*"t {6 nN0 ,atdytal<i,rn kla,n V*n . &u!,'4ttt 4rlq . Qonra.a,t*l &*tAqu '€ut*n, Third  sketch  of  the  layout  of  my  city.   I  changed  the  layout  of  my  city  into  3  main  blocks  due  to  the  area  needed  for   the  previous  layout  is  too  big.  So  I  converted  everything  into  3  main  blocks.    
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     lra</kto( /"ya*l ?k* Hydro Mchro/ t)a.,/tt - ekrh,t anafu D/ct< otaryt*a, d,/ db**t 8ewnfit oo r11r/Zts $ tury", /,{/ a * *+4u d ^*{rr , $tu rr*rrf A*,u*n (utonngu 4ruoo.Urn duetar*( 4d r**//t ra,( . Finalized  my  layout  plan  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     The  layout  plan  of  my  city  in  digital  form.    
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     st,tE/a.-1 +is, ,f--t e-*$$ $5tt r. I I I +- L xe * i{- >/s' {, {{c =:"S(7d *P JT <r _ " -: ) .^€ =,d' Li{€ '* lf'1 e / /Li =q1 -] -l tr-r" rY '''...-.i*-'- --r-?i,-_:*/*-r,.:i_!:i " 'll' *t*::- l" & *+(- 'l- 0 *-"1 ; *" "{..{.'"*: d *I n.F:!*_-Jt First  sketch  of  the  structure  of  my  town  hall   First  sketch  of  the  structure  of  my  military  block  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     S$ $ I( * d, v$l--trs) is$i f $d-El $st; $$r$ aog dc( e9o =l6d t-t , t s- { s v ..X s R. {Y. $a,:t?-*-,,*r**'..',:;,, &t s I .-F: VT T $ b t t s t R{ {r LI tr E LI tr d IIJ Itrt 99gc,eoOo€ 9eoa.dscg Sketch  of  the  structure  of  my  town  hall  with  more  information.     Finalized  the  structure  of  my  town  hall.  Changed  the  structure  to  a  triple  layer   city  which  the  outermost  layer  is  the  protection  layer  and  water  tank  (allow  the   city  to  float  up  to  the  water  surface  during  emergency  with  the  submarine   concept),  then  the  city  will  be  at  the  upper  part  of  the  floor  level  whereas  the   railway  station  will  be  built  below  the  floor  level  (underground).    
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     :' ,l The  zoning  of  my  town  hall  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     #1:. ffi*ft":::--'--" jtfiry" : $v"? /t? f Va" -, flm llo ot. -{vi/ "J'e/th4 d O0a,,: , atryl : ttbr. (-) r- rrr' )f -'/1 ., -.... ( >== ')( J t ,;.'" ,? ') l' tr t3e =l=- .! =rr*4 ffiffiffi#- ffiI::- i i: I*tr. . l.r I El'iI .r,i 1 EI',;:11 i i, _:. The  layout  plan  and  zoning  of  my  town  hall  with  more  information   and  complex  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     The  finalized  layout  plan  of  my  town  hall  in  digital  form.   Parks   Agriculture   Government  blocks   City  park   Control  tower/landmark   High-­‐class  residential   Commercials   Railway  station   High-­‐rise  residential   Lowcost  residential   Education  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     The  finalized  layout  plan  of  my  military  block.   The  finalized  layout  plan  of  my  industry  block  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     1d "'*i" ' t. -i j ^ l'6t-( i i .; f r"." ; h{ I T I i' /'1.: The  first  draft  of  the  pathway  for  the  underground  railway  in  the  city   hall.  
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     + The  final  draft  of  the  pathway  for  the  underground  railway  in  the  city  hall,   which  covered  a  larger  part  in  the  city.    
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     9. Conclusion Town planning is significant to ensure the city is well organized. For example, the industrial must be separated from the residential area to prevent any air or noise pollution. We must also need to consider about the problem will occur and how to solve it before planning a town. For instance, the water will be released from the tank to allow the city float up to the water surface during emergency. As a conclusion, I have improved my creative thinking skills, observation skills on different countries, how to design and plan a city and problem solving skills as well throughout this project.
  • ENBE | Final Project | Part A – Report | The Future City Representation   Moy Chin Hoong | 0314014 | Group w | FNBE April 2013 | Taylor’s University     10. Reference links 1. History of Baghdad, (2013), published by University of Baghdad, http://www.en.uobaghdad.edu.iq/PageViewer.aspx?id=89, Retrieved on 25 June 2013. 2. Huda, (2013), Baghdad in Islamic History, http://islam.about.com/cs/history/a/aa040703a.htm, retrieved on 25 June 2013. 3. Featherstone, M., (2010), What is a City?, published by Urban Futures and Sustainable Communities, http://urbanfutureskeele.wordpress.com/2010/03/10/what-is-a- city/, retrieved on 20 June 2013 4. Kyte, R.,(2013), A good public transport system must be easy and convenient to use, fast, safe, clean and affordable, published by global the international briefing, http://www.global-briefing.org/2012/07/a-good-public- transport-system-must-be-easy-and-convenient-to-use-fast-safe- clean-and-affordable/, retrieved on 14 June 2013 5. Clercq, M., D., & Rossi, L., (2011), The city of the future, published by ATKearney, http://www.atkearney.com/public- sector/ideas-insights/article/- /asset_publisher/LCcgOeS4t85g/content/the-city-of-the- future/10192, Retrieved on 14 June 2013 6. Living Beneath the Sea,