Software (fundamentals)


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Software (fundamentals)

  1. 1. Software <ul><li>Jackson Doughty, Nyan Min, and Seth Willis </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is Software? <ul><li>“Software is the layer between user input and the hardware that allows the computer to function” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karl Nasrallah </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Applications <ul><li>Word processing </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Photo and video editing </li></ul><ul><li>Music and sound development </li></ul><ul><li>Website development  </li></ul>
  4. 4. Word Processing <ul><li>Meant for the production of any type of printable material. Production includes creating, editing, and formatting  </li></ul><ul><li>Originally a stand alone machine popular in 70s and 80s. This means that the machines' sole purpose was to be a word processor. this machine had a monochrome monitor   </li></ul><ul><li>The way the process works is that the combination of the keyboard entry with an electric typewriter processor to edit words, then are able to print them, and then later could save it to a type of memory card.  </li></ul><ul><li>By pressing a button on the keyboard the data is sent to the CPU where it is then processed and displayed as the letter on the screen.   </li></ul>
  5. 5. 70’s and 80’s Word Processor  
  6. 6. Desktop Publishing <ul><li>The production of printed matter by means of a printer linked to a desktop computer.  </li></ul><ul><li>basic ability to publish(print) data from a computer through special software. This software is used to read the data, in particular from a word processor, in order to tell a printer what to print.  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Presentation Software <ul><li>consist of multiple &quot;slides” in order to display information on a form of timeline  </li></ul><ul><li>start as a blank template that you can edit using image and photo editing, as well as input data through a word-processor  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Photo & Video Editing <ul><li>Image editing is the process of altering images. the three main types of editing are vector graphics editing, raster graphics editing, and 3D modeling. these three tools are used to manipulate, transform, and enhance pictures.  </li></ul><ul><li>These tools can also be used to create graphic pictures  </li></ul><ul><li>Video editing is a process of editing segments of motion video production footage.   </li></ul><ul><li>It can also relate to the after effects of video. once a video project is done, you can take the editing a step further with special effects.  </li></ul><ul><li>Original forms of video editing began with non-linear editing system where in order to get through to different points of video you must play through them all  </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day includes linear editing system which displays a timeline of the video in order for a user to be able to go directly to where the user needs to in order to edit  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Music and Sound Development <ul><li>An electrical recreation of sound waves from voice, instruments, etc.  </li></ul><ul><li>Done in analog and digital recordings  </li></ul><ul><li>Originally done by Thomas Edison who used a Phonograph which had a needle that would scratch into a tinfoil cylinder that reproduced the sound. This is because sound is simply made by vibrations so the vibrations were mimicked on the cylinder.  </li></ul><ul><li>Edisons phonograph is recording an analog wave which is the vibrations recreated by voice  </li></ul><ul><li>To goal of recording is to reproduce the sound of the wave with as high fidelity(sameness) as original, and equal reproduction each time you listen to it  </li></ul><ul><li>Modern digital technology transforms the analog wave into a stream of numbers and then returns the numbers to an analog wave when listened to  </li></ul>
  10. 10. Analog Waves
  11. 11. Website Development <ul><li>Websites are built using different coding, and templates built from coding.  </li></ul><ul><li>The original coding for websites was XML, which was a basic language used to display text on a site, this language was progressed into other languages with more abilities such as HTML  </li></ul><ul><li>Example of HTML: <html> <head><title>Books</title><head> this is displayed as &quot;Books”  </li></ul><ul><li>HTML- versus XML: HTML is meant to add style to the information of the site, where as XML is just focusing on the data.  </li></ul><ul><li>HTML has many new &quot;tags&quot; example: <title>  </li></ul><ul><li>HTML 5 is the most up to date coding that is used on the World Wide Web meant to be able to understand all multimedia on the web while also being able to be understood by computers and humans  </li></ul>
  12. 12. System Software <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Operating Systems <ul><li>without operating systems a computer is useless, it is the very first thing loaded to a computer  </li></ul><ul><li>OS's use the hardware and software together  </li></ul><ul><li>Their goals are: serve a variety of purposes, interact with users in more complicated ways, keep up with needs that change over time  </li></ul><ul><li>Written in temporary/changeable coding in order to allow for modifications such as system updates  </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems manage which programs get access to central processing unit (CPU), memory(RAM), storage and input/output (I/O) bandwidth  </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Systems are written by developers with a consistent Application Program Interface(API) so that they will perform the same on all different computers including updated versions of it.  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of OS’s <ul><li>Real time Operating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very limited user interface, usually used to operate machinery  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single User, Single Task  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single user that can only perform one task at a time, in present day time this could be an example of cell phones. Many cell phones have no multitasking  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-user  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>several users can use the computers resources simultaneously  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single user, multi tasking  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common OS's, three main types are Windows, Mac OS, and Linux  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began as a blank canvas that was able to be modified by a mouse. All began with applications which were basic applications  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced to use of &quot;folders&quot; and basic styles   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then later in Windows XP, Mac OS X, and Linux 2.0 each operating system becomes more independent both in looks, user-interface, and strengths and weaknesses  </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. OS’s Continued <ul><li>Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overall more powerful, meant most for business(Microsoft Office, typically more RAM and faster CPU)  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very strong with multimedia(iTunes, iLife)  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>runs on a variety of computers and has no viruses  </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Interfaces <ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Command line interface (CLI) </li></ul><ul><li>Menu-driven interface (MDI) </li></ul><ul><li>Voice  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Graphical User Interface (GUI) <ul><li>Layer above the actual operating system that users use </li></ul><ul><li>User using a mouse to scroll over and click on a folder to open it is an example of GUI </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of using text commands to open the folder, the user is using the interface to open it.  </li></ul>
  18. 18. GUI Example  
  19. 19. Command Line Interface (CLI) <ul><li>Exact opposite of GUI. It uses a text based interface in order to perform tasks on the computer.   </li></ul><ul><li>The user &quot;enters a command&quot; into the prompt then initiates by pressing the Enter key. then a command line interpreter receives, analyzes, and executes the command. The result is usually a text response of what the command wanted.  </li></ul><ul><li>CLI is often found as an application within a Operating System that uses GUI examples are Terminal for Mac and Command Prompt for Windows  </li></ul>
  20. 20. CLI Example  
  21. 21. Menu Driven Interface (MDI) <ul><li>Way of working through information on a computer through categorizations or menus. </li></ul><ul><li>Example is an Ipod. a user picks whether he wants to view playlist, all albums, all artists etc. Then he chooses which playlist, or song, or album, and finally chooses a song.  </li></ul>
  22. 22. MDI Example
  23. 23. Voice <ul><li>Voice user interface is made possible by a voice recognition platform on the Operating system or application  </li></ul><ul><li>Using an application interpret words through understanding the analog waves of a persons voice the computer can determine what the person is saying, and can fulfill the command.  </li></ul><ul><li>Siri is an example of this, the new Iphone iOS 5 has an app called Siri which through the process of the analog waves of a humans voice can decipher what the user wants to be done.  </li></ul>
  24. 24. Licensing <ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shareware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freeware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source software  </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Shareware <ul><li>Free software which is typically in a trial or demo version; also typically limited in it's abilities  </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed to users as a demo under certain restrictions such as the user cannot further distribute, reverse engineer, or modify it  </li></ul>
  26. 26. Public Domain <ul><li>Public property over the internet if there are no current claims of intellectual property meaning it does not belong to one person  </li></ul><ul><li>Public domain is software that any can use for free, and is no one's intellectual property  </li></ul>
  27. 27. Freeware <ul><li>Free software sometimes with an optional fee which may have one or more restrictions.  </li></ul><ul><li>Free license to use the product  </li></ul>
  28. 28. Proprietary <ul><li>Purchased software that has a license agreement with the user that is typically not negotiable  </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by copyright so that the User is limited in what it can do with the software  </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and patents mean that the software is owned by someone, but by selling the software allow you to use it. an example is that the encoding of MP3 files is patented, but many people and software's use the file.  </li></ul>
  29. 29. Open Source Software <ul><li>Exact opposite in that a developer can release his software to others who can then improve it, redistribute it, or learn how it was made by looking/changing the source code of it.  </li></ul>
  30. 30. Open Office (Open Source Example)
  31. 31. Licensing Authorities <ul><li>Business Software Alliance (BSA)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal Activity is to stop copyright infringement of software produced by its member  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common type of license included with software for single-user license would be called an end-user license agreement (EULA)   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And with this agreement includes conditions specified for users  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Commercial and Custom-built (bespoke) Software <ul><li>Made for specified users and organizations  </li></ul><ul><li>Can be developed by an in-house software development group or commissioned from a software house or independent software developers   </li></ul><ul><li>Since custom built for customers it can accommodate customer's specified preferences and expectations   </li></ul><ul><li>As opposed to Commercial software buying packaged software, some organizations write their own applications.  </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of custom software is that it matches the organization's needs perfectly </li></ul><ul><li>However Custom Software  is usually more expensive, takes longer to design and enact than commercial software.   </li></ul>
  33. 33. Registration & Serial Number <ul><li>Protection is provided automatically for all creative works once fixed into a medium  </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright is a legal concept giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it for a limited time  </li></ul>
  34. 34. Warranty & Copyright Agreement <ul><li>Serial Number: A unique number assigned for identification varying from its successor and predecessor   </li></ul><ul><li>Warranty: Is assurance by one stakeholder to another stakeholder that specific facts are true; and the other stakeholder are allowed to rely on the assurance, and seek some type of help to fix the problem.   </li></ul>
  35. 35. Web-based Software <ul><li>Software that implements  application on-line.   </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as A Web Application  </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of web applications: business, spreadsheet, multimedia, web-page authority, legal software   </li></ul>
  36. 36. Macros <ul><li>Sequence of keystrokes and instructions that a user records and saves </li></ul><ul><li>Includes keyboard and mouse, text substitution, procedural, and lisp/s-expression </li></ul><ul><li>Users can create macros in whatever software their using </li></ul>
  37. 38. Templates <ul><li>Document that contains the formatting necessary for a specific document type </li></ul><ul><li>Usually for memos, fax cover sheets, and letters </li></ul><ul><li>They can also be online (Google docs) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Wizards <ul><li>User interface that gives the user a sequence of steps </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a set-up assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Used for tasks that are intricate, rare, or unfamiliar </li></ul>
  39. 40. File Formats <ul><li>Particular way information is encoded in a file </li></ul><ul><li>Can either be proprietary (intellectual property of a person/organization) or open (can be used by anyone) </li></ul>
  40. 41. Types of File Formats <ul><li>RTF: rich text format </li></ul><ul><li>TXT: text </li></ul><ul><li>PDF: portable document format </li></ul><ul><li>XLS: Excel spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>SWF: small web format </li></ul><ul><li>ZIP: zipped file </li></ul><ul><li>JPG/JPEG: Joint Photographic Expert Group bitmap </li></ul><ul><li>PNG: portable network graphics bitmap </li></ul><ul><li>CSV: comma-separated values </li></ul><ul><li>HTM/HTML: hypertext markup language </li></ul>
  41. 42. Data Transfer <ul><li>Physical transfer of data over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint channel </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as data transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Can be from software to software(s), computer to computer(s), or from Internet to computer </li></ul><ul><li>Measured in bits per second </li></ul>
  42. 43. Types of Data Transfers <ul><li>Tab-delimited text file </li></ul><ul><li>Zipped file </li></ul><ul><li>ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents text in computers and communication equipment </li></ul></ul>