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Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter Three Software: The Essence of Computers<br />“The number one benefit of information technology is that it empowers people to do what they want to do. It lets people be creative. It lets people be productive. It lets people learn things they didn't think they could learn before, and so in a sense it is all about potential.” <br />Steve Ballmer, CEO, Microsoft Corporation<br />
  2. 2. Chapter Three Outline<br /><ul><li>Software
  3. 3. Operating Systems
  4. 4. Customized Software
  5. 5. Software Quality
  6. 6. Word Processing
  7. 7. Electronic Spreadsheet
  8. 8. Database Software
  9. 9. Presentation Graphics
  10. 10. Integrated and Workflow Software
  11. 11. Unleashing Executive Brainpower</li></li></ul><li>Pressman:<br /> “Software is (1) instructions (computer programs) that when executed provide desired features, function, and performance; (2) data structures that enable the programs to adequately manipulate information; and (3) documents that describer the operation and use of the programs.”<br />Sommerville:<br /> “Computer programs and associated documentation. Software products may be developed for a particular customer or may be developed for a general market.”<br />What is software?<br />
  12. 12. <ul><li>Software is developed or engineered; it is not manufactured in the classical sense.</li></ul>The cost of developing software is focused in engineering process, so the software project cant be managed as in manufacturing project<br /><ul><li>Software doesn’t “wear out”.
  13. 13. Although the industry is moving toward component-based construction, most software continues to be custombuilt. </li></ul>a software component should be designed and implemented so that it can be reused.<br />Software Characteristic <br />
  14. 14. Software<br />Software: The computer programs that control the electronic hardware and perform processing tasks for the user. There are two types of software: operatingsystem, a master control program informing the computer how to function, and application, used for performing general-purpose (e.g., word processing) and industry-specific (e.g., inventory control, accounting, sales and marketing, table management, etc.) tasks.<br />Programmers: The creators of software who are responsible for designing, coding, debugging, and documenting computer programs.<br /> Programming Languages: Software programs are written or coded using a particular language, such as COBOL, Java, and C++. <br />Flowchart: A diagram showing how a program works . It also used to understand, evaluate, and design information systems. Click on this Video Link: A demo of Microsoft Visio 2007 that helps IT and business professionals visualize systems and processes.<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />
  15. 15. Flowchart<br />
  16. 16. Operating System Tasks<br />“Walk-In”<br />Provides User Interface. Two types of interfaces are Command Line Interface (CLI) ( commands typed or selected from text-based menu) and Graphical User Interface (GUI) (standard menu, mouse or touch screen and graphical icons or other visual indicators are used). For example, one front office system the “Walk-In” task, represented by a pair of footprints, is selected by positioning the mouse pointer on the icon and clicking. <br />The most recent trend is Web-enabled hospitality applications that use an Internet browser to display application pages in a GUI format. <br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />
  17. 17. Operating System Tasks<br /><ul><li>Manages the File System. Groups data into logical compartments for storage on the disk, which is filled with directories (file cabinets) and subdirectories (drawers) where files (folders) are kept. Files are kept organized by using a consistent naming scheme that is understandable and easily remembered by users (e.g., short, common names) and storing related files in the same directory. Windows Vista offers an “Instant Search Function” within the Explorer window to locate files difficult to find. This allows users to search for files by extensions (e.g., abc.doc where “doc” is the extension), filenames (abc.doc), or keywords within the documents.</li></ul>© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />
  18. 18. Operating System Tasks<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />Manages the Hardware. The operating system acts as the intermediary between the programs and hardware. For example, when a printer (e.g., Hewlett Packard Color Laserjet) is added in Windows, it is automatically accessible in all other programs.<br />
  19. 19. Operating System Tasks<br />Supports Other Programs. The operating system acts as the intermediary between the programs and hardware. For example, when a user requests a word processing program to list word processing document files available on the USB flash drive, it calls on the operating system to perform this task.<br />
  20. 20. Operating Systems<br /><ul><li>Operating System Types: Although Windows and its predecessor, DOS, have dominated the hospitality computer market, Unix and Linux are gaining in popularity due to their power, flexibility, and portability. Unlike Windows and DOS, Unix and Linux are based on open standards like the Internet, allowing them to run on virtually any computer. Click on this Video Link: Dell - Linux 101.
  21. 21. Selecting an Operating System: A key consideration when selecting an operating system is the availability of the application. For example, a restaurant company selected Linux, a free operating system similar to Unix, because the software license fees and the computing costs were lower than other operating systems. It took the restaurant, however, five years to find a suitable Linux point of sale solution, a key application in any restaurant operation.</li></ul> Linux Mascot<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />
  22. 22. Customized Software<br />Software development has not been able to satisfy the demand for custom software. Consequently, most hospitality users rely on prepackaged business applications.<br />Hospitality vendors are now designing software programs to provide customizable screens, reports, menus, and user interfaces. Click on this Video Link: A discussion on creating customized solutions for restaurants.<br /> In 1920, it was predicted that every man, woman, and child would have to be a telephone operator by 1960 to accommodate people using telephones. Oddly enough, this became a reality because telephones were created that everyone could easily afford, understand, and operate. Likewise, future computer operators will begin to look more and more like programmers equipped with sophisticated tools allowing programs to be expeditiously created and modified with use. <br />Exciting developments are on the horizon where end-users will play an integral role in the reaching the next stage of the software revolution. <br />Example: MARSHA, HOLIDEX, OnQ<br />
  23. 23. Software Quality - FURPS<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br /> Functionality – Refers to program capabilities and features. Functional software helps employees to do their jobs quickly and easily and to provide consistent, responsive, and quality customer service. Click on this Video Link: An Orbitz systems analyst discussed the importance of functional Web sites and applications. <br />Usability – Refers to the “user-friendliness” of software. Friendly software is adaptable, understandable, predictable, responsive, self-explanatory, forgiving, efficient, and flexible. Due to the high turnover rate there are many naïve (lacks hospitality and computer experience) and novice users ( hospitality experience with some computer experience). This precludes a direct command system (e.g., select guest checkout function key F1) and requires a menu command system where the user is presented with a list of choices and prompts. Some hospitality programs have incorporated both a menu and direct command system to accommodate all users: naïve, novice, and competent/expert users (have solid computer and hospitality experience). Click on this Video Link: Microsoft founder Bill Gates discusses the importance of usability and how the human-computer interface has evolved. <br />
  24. 24. Software Quality - FURPS<br />Usability Principles<br />Provides self-explanatory choices.<br />Information is presented in organized fashion allowing the user to quickly spot the appropriate command or choice.<br />Screen layouts are carefully formatted with appropriate font sizes and colors and not too much information. <br />Task and key descriptions are precisely defined and easily understood.<br />Related tasks are grouped together Tasks should also be grouped according to their sequence of use, frequency of use, function, and importance.<br />The user always know where he or she is located in the program.<br />The system keeps the user informed of system status and when problems are encountered.<br />The system responds to user requests within 10 seconds.<br />Task and keyboard/input definitions are consistent throughout the program.<br />Uses appropriate color combinations. <br />
  25. 25. Software Quality - FURPS<br /><ul><li>Reliability – Refers to the number of software defects or errors. Click on this Video Link: Troubleshooting software errors. A reliable program produces accurate information and provides the ability to quickly recover from software errors without jeopardizing the integrity of files. Click on this Video Link: Testing for software bugs.
  26. 26. Performance – Refers to program speed and response time. A front office program requiring a user to execute eight steps to print a guest folio impedes organizational efficiency and customer service.
  27. 27. Supportability – Refers to the ability to service and maintain a program. Reputable software vendors have well-trained customer support staffs.</li></li></ul><li>Word Processing<br />Features (Click on this Video Link: Overview of Microsoft Office Word 2007)<br />Click on this to see the Microsoft Word Tutorial)<br />Research. Provides convenient access to the Internet within the application to research a particular subject. <br />Tracks Changes. Denotes all proposed revisions within the document, including insertions, deletions, and formatting changes. This feature is especially helpful for those collaborating on a document.<br />Translator. Translates text into another language. In the global hospitality market, the need to communicate in a language other than English may arise. Machine translation is helpful for basic subject matter. However, for important and sensitive documents, human translation is recommended because machine translation may not convey the meaning and tone of the text. <br />Document Inspector. Assures that documents contain correct information and not anything that should not be shared with other people. This feature reviews the document for hidden data or personal information, such as authorship, e-mail headers, send-for-review information, routing slips, printer paths, file path information for publishing Web pages, comments, revision marks from tracked changes, versions, and ink annotations. <br />Grammar Checker: Examines a document for common grammatical errors. It may provide some useful suggestions but sometimes gives inappropriate advice. It should not be used by the grammar-impaired.<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />
  28. 28. Word Processing<br />Features<br /><ul><li>Spell Checker. Identifies misspelled words, typos, repeated words (e.g., from from) and incorrect capitalization (fFrom). Spell checkers contain over 400,000 words and frequently flag correctly spelled words. Dictionaries can be selected based on the target audience (e.g., British). Words not found can be added to the spell checker’s custom dictionary. It is important to remember that spell check does not replace good proofreading.
  29. 29. Auto-Check. Automatically corrects misspelled words.
  30. 30. Aut0-Summarize. Identifies the key points in a document and creates a summary for others to read
  31. 31. Style Checker. Checks a document for readability. For example, a Hemingway short story is written at a fifth grade level according to one style checker.
  32. 32. Thesaurus. Suggest synonyms for any word. It is best to choose simple words.
  33. 33. Other Features. These programs can create watermarks (e.g., confidential appears in the background on each page), visible and invisible digital signatures, multicolumn documents, and the automatic generation of indexes and tables of content. They enable the insertion of graphics, video clips, sound files, charts, and illustrations to grab the reader’s attention. They can do equation editing, drawing, and mail merges, the combining of names and addresses with a form letter. Mail merge, for example, can be used to personalize e-mail newsletters by inserting each contact’s first and last name at a designated point in the e-mail. </li></li></ul><li>Word Processing<br />Features<br /><ul><li>Desk Top Publishing. Since word processors can merge text and graphics on the same page, they can do basic desk top publishing, an inexpensive production system for generating typesetting quality text and graphics. A word processing program can efficiently create a five-page newsletter or a simple brochure with only a few graphics.
  34. 34. Multiple Views. For example, a document can be viewed in a number of different ways in MS Word 2007. The “Outline View” shows the structure of the document, enabling the user to rearrange content by clicking and dragging content to new locations. To check through a document quickly, the user may either select a “Draft View,” which hides images and graphics, or a “Full Screen Reading View,” which displays two pages of the document at a time. The “Web Layout” view displays the document as if it were an online document. </li></li></ul><li>Electronic Spreadsheet<br />Click here to see Microsoft Excel Tutorial<br /> Row<br />Features (Click on this Video Link: Overview of Microsoft Office Excel 2007)<br /><ul><li>Function Formulas. A spreadsheet provides a number of ready made formulas for performing a series of operations on a specified range of cells. Formulas have been developed for database functions, date and time functions, financial functions, logical functions, mathematical functions, statistical functions, etc. To identify which cells are used in a formula, Excel 2007 provides a “Formula Auditing” tool that draws blue arrows from the current cell to all of the cells on the worksheet involved in the calculation.
  35. 35. “What if” Analysis: Once data is entered into the spreadsheet, the user can modify the spreadsheet without reentering the data and manipulate the numbers to project various situations such as: “ What if we increase our menu prices by 5%.”
  36. 36. Report and Graph Generation. Spreadsheets are used for budgets, forecasting and decision models, numeric analysis, schedules, invoices, inventory, payroll, accounts payable, etc. </li></ul>© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />Column <br />33% is found<br />in Cell D2, which has<br />the following formula -<br />“=B2/c2”<br />
  37. 37. Electronic Spreadsheet<br />Features<br /><ul><li>Naming Function. This feature enables the user to name a cell (or range of cells) that can be referenced in a formula (e.g., +A1*markup rate). Referring to a cell by a name, rather than by the cell location, also makes reading, constructing, and debugging formulas far easier.
  38. 38. Move and Copy. Spreadsheet data can be moved from one place to another as well as duplicated, including formulas.
  39. 39. Links Spreadsheets/Worksheets. This is useful for consolidating data from multiple spreadsheets (e.g., master consolidated sales volume spreadsheet for a restaurant chain), creating different views of the data, and streamlining complex models (e.g., breaking down a complex spreadsheet into smaller, interdependent spreadsheets saves time and memory). </li></li></ul><li>Electronic Spreadsheet<br />Features <br /><ul><li>Macros. A mini programming language that enables a user to store a list of commands in a template executed by one key stroke, automating tedious and frequently repeated tasks such as a weekly labor analysis.
  40. 40. Restricts Access. Spreadsheet applications are used daily by accountants, auditors, and other employees. They provide information ranging from bank reconciliations to financial statements submitted to regulatory agencies. Because of the sensitivity of some spreadsheet data, unauthorized access to spreadsheets and unwarranted or unauthorized altering of formulas, data, and formatting can have negative consequences. For example, a disgruntled employee at one international company downloaded an Excel spreadsheet of all employee salaries to a USB drive. “The employee quit before anyone noticed the breach and emailed the Excel spreadsheet to every individual in the company. As you can imagine, the consequences were devastating” ( This situation could have been prevented if the password protection controls available in Excel had been utilized. </li></li></ul><li>Database Software<br />“By putting people in touch with data, we empower people.” Michael Jordan, Former Chairman, Pepsico International Food & Beverage Division <br />Features (Click on this Video Link: Overview of Microsoft Office Access 2007)<br />Click here to see Microsoft Access Tutorial<br />Used for a variety of applications. A database program is used to store, retrieve, and sort information. Database applications have been developed for almost every facet of a hospitality business including operations (e.g., reservation system), accounting (e.g., inventory control system), sales and marketing (e.g., keeping contact with customers), human resource management (e.g., keeping track of personnel information), and knowledge-based expert systems (e.g., online customer self-service system). <br />Personal Information Manager. A type of database application that holds a user’s personal data and is especially convenient for businesspeople who use mobile devices (e.g., Blackberry) far afield. Common functions include automated calendars, schedulers and appointment books, project managers, expense reports, to-do lists, outliners, and phone and address books.<br />Contact Manager. Expands on the basic principles of personal information managers by relating the database across the tools in the application. It integrates contact lists and information with schedules and related tools to automate communication, mailing, and telephone activities. <br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />
  41. 41. Database Software<br />Employee Directory Table<br />Column = Field<br />Row= Record<br />Features<br /><ul><li>Different Structures. There are a number of different ways to structure databases.
  42. 42. Some can manipulate a collection of data just a table at a time: This is called a flat-file database. The classic example of a flat-file is a database consisting of a small, fixed number of fields such as name, address, and phone number.
  43. 43. A relational databaseallows data to be retrieved or updated from several tables at once. For example, when the reservation record for Don Shula is completed, the VIP and guest history files will be updated.
  44. 44. An object-oriented database does not store data in tables but as objects, such as customers, suppliers, and reservations. An object is a single entity combining data (e.g., customer photograph) and methods (e.g., print photograph). These reusable, self-contained program units can communicate with each other (e.g., customer object sends a message to a reservation object). A key advantage of this database structure for some applications is that it can significantly increase the speed of information retrieval. In 2006, Starwood Hotels and Resorts deployed an object-oriented database for its central reservation system. This significantly increased the throughput of reservation inquiries. As a result, room prices could be adjusted in real time according to supply and demand to improve occupancy and yield rates. </li></li></ul><li>Database Software<br />Features<br /><ul><li>Report Generator. Enables users to design comprehensive reports.
  45. 45. Automation Tools. Programming languages, application generators, and scripts are used to develop database applications. Programming languages, such as dBase (object-oriented language), enable programmers to develop turnkey applications. Application generators are used for simple jobs where the user points and clicks his or her way through menus while the application generator produces the programming code. A script, the least powerful tool, contains a list of command and key strokes selected by the user to automate a common task (e.g., running a particular report). </li></li></ul><li>Presentation Graphics<br />Click here to see Microsoft PowerPoint Tutorial<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />(Click on this Video Link: Overview of Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007)<br />An Effective presentation:<br /><ul><li>Concentrates on the message and basic information.
  46. 46. Relates well to the audience.
  47. 47. Avoids acronyms and abbreviations.
  48. 48. Does not use jargon specific to a narrow field.
  49. 49. Allows viewers in the back row to read material without straining.
  50. 50. Limits the content of each slide to less than five lines to keep it crisp and to the point.
  51. 51. Cites precise figures only when they truly serve an important purpose.
  52. 52. Uses flat, bold images to convey information when realistic images are unavailable.
  53. 53. Uses sound color theory and light type and graphics on a dark background.
  54. 54. Directs the viewers’ eyes through the graphic frame, moving first to the most important information.
  55. 55. Use no more than two font families.
  56. 56. Select templates appropriate to the message and image and enhance readability. Use the same colors and fonts throughout the presentation. </li></li></ul><li>Integrated Software<br /> Integrated software is an effort by the software industry to combine a number of software capabilities into a single package with a common set of commands and rules for its use. This allows a user to perform a variety of tasks without having to switch programs or learn different commands and procedures to run each one of them.<br />
  57. 57. Integrated Software<br />Microsoft Office is an example of an integrated software package. It includes:<br /><ul><li>Microsoft Word – A word processing application
  58. 58. Microsoft Excel – A spreadsheet program.
  59. 59. Microsoft PowerPoint – An application for creating slideshows.
  60. 60. Microsoft Outlook – An email program and personal information manager.
  61. 61. Microsoft Access – A database application.
  62. 62. Microsoft Publisher – A desktop publishing application.
  63. 63. Microsoft Groove – An application for creating collaborative workspaces for sharing files and working on projects.
  64. 64. Microsoft InfoPath – An application for designing and filling out forms to gather and reuse information throughout the organization. </li></li></ul><li>Workflow Software<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />Workflow Software involves the automated movement of documents or items through a specific sequence of actions or tasks related to a business process. At each stage in the workflow, an individual or group is responsible for a specific task. Once the task is complete, those responsible for the next task are notified by the software and receive data needed to execute it. For example, a hotel company could use workflow software to handle customer complaints consistently from their onset to the final resolution.<br />
  65. 65. Unleashing Brainpower<br />© 2008 Jupiter Images Corporation<br />Information technology can be used to unleash the immense intellectual power of the brain, a super bio computer. Information tools such as word processors, spreadsheets, idea generators, and graphics packages, stimulate creative thinking, facilitate the organization and analysis of ideas and information, and enable problems to be solved more comprehensively and rapidly. Click on this Video Link: Brainstorming software. <br />
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Interface vs Integration<br />
  68. 68. Interface<br />TRANSLATOR<br />
  69. 69. Call Accounting to PMS Interface<br />Call Accounting<br />PMS<br />
  70. 70. Integration<br /><ul><li> Common platform
  71. 71. Common database</li></li></ul><li>Integration<br />Call Accounting<br />PMS<br />COMMON DATABASE<br />
  72. 72. XML<br />XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form.<br />