Unit 2 Foc


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Unit 2 Foc

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>HARDWARE </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE S/W AND H/W </li></ul>
  4. 4. SOFTWARE <ul><li>Application software </li></ul><ul><li>-Easy-to-use programs designed to perform specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Set of programs designed to operate and control the computer. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. OPERATING SYSTEM <ul><li>It is a collection of programs that controls and manages the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Windows, Unix, MSDOS </li></ul>
  6. 6. Functions Of OS <ul><li>It provide an interface between the hardware and the user. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls and co-ordinate the entire computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls the allocation and use of various resource by various user and task. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls the various application programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling the jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Process management, Memory management, Device management etc,. </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF OS <ul><li>Single user/ single tasking OS </li></ul><ul><li>Single user/ multi tasking OS </li></ul><ul><li>Multi user/ multi tasking OS </li></ul><ul><li>Time sharing OS </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual storage OS </li></ul><ul><li>Real time system </li></ul>
  8. 8. Single user/Single tasking OS <ul><li>One user works on the system </li></ul><ul><li>Performs one task at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Take up little space on disk </li></ul><ul><li>Run on inexpensive computers </li></ul><ul><li>Example MS-DOS </li></ul>
  9. 9. Single user/Multitasking OS <ul><li>User performs many tasks at once </li></ul><ul><li>Most common form of OS </li></ul><ul><li>Require expensive computers </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be complex </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Windows XP </li></ul>
  10. 10. Multi user/Multitasking OS <ul><li>Many users connect to one computer </li></ul><ul><li>Each user has a unique session </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance can be easy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a powerful computer </li></ul><ul><li>Example: UNIX, Linux, etc,. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Time sharing OS <ul><li>It handles multiple jobs at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>It switches the CPU among various jobs that are running on the computer whenever there is a program break or a fixed time has expired. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Virtual storage OS <ul><li>It uses the technique Demand paging. i.e. whenever the program size is larger than the main memory it splits the program into many pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the needed page is loaded to the main memory for execution. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Real-time operating system <ul><li>It gets data from an on going event. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond quickly to user input. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Reservation system </li></ul>
  15. 15. HARDWARE <ul><li>The physical components present in the computer is called Hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Keyboard, Monitor etc,. </li></ul>
  16. 16. SOFTWARE <ul><li>It is a collection of programs which, performs some task. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System s/w </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application s/w </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. System S/W <ul><li>It is collection of programs that controls and manage the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Types:OS,Language processor etc,. </li></ul>
  18. 18. TYPES OF SOFTWARE APPLICATION SYSTEM SOFTWARE Example: Operating system, Device drivers, Language Processor, System utilities etc,. Example: Ms-Office, Reservation system, Payroll processing system Hospital management system etc,. GENERAL CUSTOMISED
  19. 19. OS <ul><li>It is a collection of programs that controls and manages all the components present in the computer </li></ul>
  20. 20. Device drivers <ul><li>It is set of programs, which act as an interface between the computer and the device. </li></ul><ul><li>It is responsible for the proper functioning of the device. </li></ul>COMPUTER D R I V E R S DEVICE 1 DEVICE 2 DEVICE n
  21. 21. Language Processor <ul><li>It is a system s/w that translates the programs written in High level language to Machine language. </li></ul><ul><li>Machine language: 0’s and 1’s. </li></ul><ul><li>High level language: C, C++, Java etc,. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Compiler, Interpreter, Assembler </li></ul>
  22. 22. Compiler <ul><li>It converts the programs written in high level language to machine language i.e. it translates the source code to object code. </li></ul>HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE C O M P I L E R MACHINE LANGUAGE
  23. 23. Interpreter <ul><li>It converts the programs written in high level language to machine language. </li></ul><ul><li>It executes the source code in line-by-line manner. </li></ul>I N T E R P R E T R E HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE MACHINE LANGUAGE
  24. 24. Assembler <ul><li>It converts the programs written in Assembly language to machine language. </li></ul>A S S E M B L E R ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE MACHINE LANGUAGE
  25. 25. System Utilities <ul><li>These programs performs tasks related to the maintenance of computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Disk clean-up. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. APPLICATION SOFTWARE <ul><li>It is collection of programs that performs a specific task. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customised </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. APPLICATION SOFTWARE (Cont) <ul><li>Customised Application s/w </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is developed to meet the requirements of limited user. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General Application s/w </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is developed to meet the requirements of many user. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. S/W Terminologies <ul><li>Firmware </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a software, which is permanently stored on the memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eg: BIOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open source </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is software developed by some programmers and released for public use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The programming code is available so that the user can modify it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. S/W Terminologies (Cont) <ul><li>Freeware </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a copyrighted software which is given away free by the owner. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial s/w </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is developed by business organizations to earn profit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE <ul><li>Steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Requirement analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation & maintenance </li></ul>
  31. 31. SDLC Requirement Analysis Impl & Maintenance Testing Coding Design
  32. 32. Requirement analysis <ul><li>It produce the Software requirement document (SRS),which specifies all requirements of the customer. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Design <ul><li>It is the process of designing how the requirements to be implemented. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Coding <ul><li>It is the process of developing code for the software. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Testing <ul><li>It is the process of executing the software with sample data to verify whether it has errors or not. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Implementation & maintenance <ul><li>It involves installation of the s/w, giving training to the customer etc,. </li></ul>
  37. 37. ASSIGNMENT
  38. 38. DECIMAL ↔ BINARY <ul><li>29 </li></ul><ul><li>68 </li></ul><ul><li>116 </li></ul><ul><li>202 </li></ul><ul><li>423 </li></ul>
  39. 39. DECIMAL ↔ OCTAL <ul><li>27 </li></ul><ul><li>171 </li></ul><ul><li>262 </li></ul><ul><li>726 </li></ul><ul><li>3731 </li></ul>
  40. 40. DECIMAL ↔ HEXA <ul><li>83 </li></ul><ul><li>796 </li></ul><ul><li>2947 </li></ul><ul><li>4321 </li></ul><ul><li>8239 </li></ul>
  41. 41. DECIMAL ↔ OTHER <ul><li>85 ↔ BASE4 </li></ul><ul><li>76 ↔ BASE3 </li></ul><ul><li>317 ↔ BASE6 </li></ul><ul><li>186 ↔ BASE7 </li></ul><ul><li>251 ↔ BASE8 </li></ul>
  42. 42. BINARY ↔ OCTAL,HEXA <ul><li>1110111 </li></ul><ul><li>1100001001 </li></ul><ul><li>10010101101011 </li></ul><ul><li>101011110001 </li></ul><ul><li>10110101011 </li></ul>
  43. 43. OCTAL ↔ HEXA <ul><li>567 </li></ul><ul><li>649 </li></ul><ul><li>814 </li></ul><ul><li>2457 </li></ul><ul><li>4948 </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>61.625 10  BASE2 </li></ul><ul><li>427.29 10  OCTAL </li></ul><ul><li>759.37 10  HEXA </li></ul>
  45. 45. INTERNET <ul><li>Network of networks i.e. interconnection of networks. </li></ul>
  46. 46. EVOLUTION OF INTERNET <ul><li>In 1960 US Dept of Defense created a network called ARPANET ( A dvanced R esearch P roject A gency Net work).It is the forerunner of today’s Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1970’s ARPA helped in the development of TCP/IP ( T ransmission C ontrol P rotocol/ I nternet P rotocol) which is used for transferring of data between networks. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>In 1980’s National Science Foundation (NSF) created the NSFNET. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1980’s e-mail was introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990’s the world wide web was introduced. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Internet Terminology <ul><li>Webpage – It is an electronic document which contains information. </li></ul><ul><li>Website – It is a collection of related WebPages. </li></ul><ul><li>Homepage – It is starting point or doorway to the website. It is also known as the index page. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Internet Terminology (Cont) <ul><li>Web Browser or Browser – It is a program that enables the user to access the Webpage and displays the webpage on the computer screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator (URL) –It is the unique Address of the Webpage, which is used to identifies its location on the internet. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Internet Terminology (Cont) <ul><li>Hypertext – It refers to the text that connects other documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Service Provider (ISP) - It provides access to the internet to user. </li></ul><ul><li>Web Server – It is a computer that services the requests from the clients i.e. web browser </li></ul>
  51. 51. Internet Terminology (Cont) <ul><li>Download - It is the process of receiving data from a remote computer to the local computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Upload – It is process of sending data from local computer to remote computer. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Getting connected to the Internet <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul><ul><li>A Connection with the ISP </li></ul>
  53. 53. IP Address <ul><li>The Internet Protocol Address is used for identifying the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be expressed in dotted decimal form or binary form. </li></ul><ul><li>It has four octets i.e. it has four 8 bit number Eg: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10101111.11000000.00000000.00000001 </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. DNS <ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to maps the text to the IP Address. </li></ul>
  55. 55. URL <ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains the protocol name, domain name etc,. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: http://www.microsoft.com </li></ul>
  56. 56. Internet Application <ul><li>World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>It is a collection of information or collection websites. </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to send electronic message to anyone. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Internet Application (Cont) <ul><li>Chatting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is online Conversation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is used to send message back and forth to anyone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote Access </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the process of accessing information present in a remote computer. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Internet Application (Cont) <ul><li>File Sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It enables a group of user to share information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The information has been placed on a shared location and the user access the information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Internet Application (Cont) <ul><li>IRC </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Relay Chat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is designed for group communication. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It allows two or more user to interact via video and audio transmission. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Internet Application (Cont) <ul><li>FTP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is used to transfer data from one computer to another computer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TelNet </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication Network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This protocol is used to get services from the server. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Internet Application (Cont) <ul><li>VOIP </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice Over Internet Protocol. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It sends voice over the internet protocol. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 64. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE Requirements – defines needed information, function, behavior, performance and interfaces. Design – data structures, software architecture, interface representations, algorithmic details. Implementation – source code, database, user documentation, testing.