New Types of Interaction• Our activities are supported by a wide range of devices and software.• Our devices are capable of sensing the context of our activities.• Our devices and services are still being designed in isolation.
Camera GPS and GLONASS Ambient light sensor Proximity sensor Accelerometer Three-axis gyroscope Digital compass WiFi 3G and EDGE Bluetoothhttp://www.apple.com/iphone/specs.html, accessed 28.11.2012
Post-Desktop Model of HCI • Information processing is integrated into everyday objects . • Ubiquitous computing is subsuming traditional computing paradigms, for example desktop and mobile computing .1. Zhao, R., Wang, J.:Visualizing the research on pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Scientometrics 86(3), 593–612 (2011)2. Greenﬁeld, A.: Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing. New Riders Publishing, 1st edn. (Mar 2006)
Invisible Computing • Interaction with computers should be more like interaction with the physical world . • Users should be able to sense and control what directly interests them . • Our devices remain the focus of attention instead of fading into the background.1. Abowd, G., Mynatt, E.: Charting past, present, and future research in ubiquitous computing. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) 7(1), 29–58 (2000)2. Roussos, G., Musolesi, M., Magoulas, G.D.: Human behavior in ubiquitous environments: Experience and interaction design. Pervasive and Mobile Computing 6(5), 497–498 (Oct 2010)
People and Computers • Previously a ”one-to-one” relationship, one technology - one application - one user. • Nowadays “many-to-many”, with ever- changing conﬁgurations of devices, applications, and users.Brodersen, C., Bødker, S., Klokmose, C.: Ubiquitous substitution. Human-Computer Interaction–INTERACT 2007 pp. 179–192 (2007)
Context • Any information, which characterizes the situation of a person, a place or an object, relevant to the interaction between a user and an application . • Ubiquitous computing as ”a technology of context” .1. Chen, G., Kotz, D.: A survey of context-aware mobile computing research (2000)2. Dourish,P.: Where the Action Is: The Foundations of Embodied Interaction (Bradford Books). The MIT Press, new ed edn. (Aug 2004)
Types of Context • Where you are. • Who you are with. • What resources are nearby.Schilit, B., Adams, N., Want, R.: Context-aware computing applications (1994)
wn apps Unsatisfactory state Stable stateseen as ?Artifact ‘how’pendingng thatreadings men- deeperble dy- Excited state Figure 2. The states of the artifact ecology. In the unsatisfactorygies are state the current artifact ecology no longer lives up to the users sms of S., Klokmose, C.N.: Dynamics in artifact ecologies (2012) Bødker,
Deﬁnition Interactions in the context of ubiquitous computing, which include multiple, dynamic, and distributed interfaces.Klokmose, C.N.: An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction. DHRS 2006 p. 33 (2006)
The New Reality• People use a plethora of different devices and services to support their activities.• Devices can collect and leverage contextual information.• We currently do not have a clear understanding how to design for this type of interaction.