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Cluster computing


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A short and complete overview of cluster computing.

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Cluster computing

  1. 1. CLUSTER COMPUTING POOJA KHATANA BTBTI11354 Exam R.No:11394 B.Tech(IT)5th semester DATE: 28 November 2013
  2. 2. Very often applications need more computing power than a sequential computer can provide. One way of overcoming this limitation is to improve the operating speed of processors and other components so that they can offer the power required by computationally intensive applications. Even though this is currently possible to certain extent, future improvements are constrained by the speed of light, thermodynamic laws, and the high financial costs for processor fabrication. A viable and cost-effective alternative solution is to connect multiple processors together and coordinate
  4. 4.  A computer cluster is a group of tightly coupled computers that work together closely so that it can be viewed as a single computer.  Clusters are commonly connected through fast local area networks.  Clusters have evolved to support applications ranging from ecommerce, to high performance database applications.  Clusters are usually deployed to improve speed and/or reliability over that provided by a single computer, while typically being much more cost effective than single
  5. 5.  In cluster computing each node within a cluster is an independent system, with its own operating system, private memory, and, in some cases, its own file system. Because the processors on one node cannot directly access the memory on the other nodes, programs or software run on clusters usually employ a procedure called "message passing" to get data and execution code from one node to another.  Cluster computing can also be used as a relatively low-cost form of parallel processing for scientific and other applications that lend themselves to parallel operations.
  6. 6.  Customers invented clusters, as soon as they could not fit all their work on one computer, or needed a backup.  The first commodity clustering product was ARCnet, developed by Datapoint in 1977.  The next product was VAXcluster, released by DEC in 1980’s.  Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, and other leading hardware and software companies offer clustering packages.
  7. 7. A cluster is a type of parallel /distributed processing system ,which consists of a collection of interconnected stand-alone computers cooperatively working together a single , integrated computing resource. A node: a single or multiprocessor system with memory, I/O facilities, &OS generally two or more computers (nodes) connected together in a single cabinet, or physically separated & connected via a LAN appear as a single system to users and applications provide a cost-effective way to gain features and benefits
  8. 8. High Performance (HP) Clusters Load Balancing Cluster High Availability(HA) Clusters
  9. 9. Start from 1994.  Donald Becker of NASA assembled this cluster.  Also called Beowulf cluster.  Applications like data mining, simulations, parallel processing, weather modeling, etc. 
  10. 10.  PC cluster deliver load balancing performance.  Commonly used with busy ftp(file transfer protocol) and web servers with large client base.  Large number of nodes to share load.
  11. 11. Avoid single point of failure.  This requires atleast two nodes - a primary and a backup.  Always with redundancy.  Almost all load balancing cluster are with HA capability. 
  12. 12. The components critical to the development of low cost clusters are: 1. Processors 2. Memory 3. Networking Components 4. Motherboards, busses, and other sub-systems
  13. 13. Computer clusters offer a number of benefits over mainframe computers, including: 1. Reduced Cost 2. Processing Power 3. Improved Network Technology 4. Scalability 5. Availability
  14. 14. 1. Reduced Cost: The price of off-the-shelf consumer desktops has plummeted in recent years, and this drop in price has corresponded with a vast increase in their processing power and performance. The average desktop PC today is many times more powerful than the first mainframe computers. 2. Processing Power : The parallel processing power of a highperformance cluster can, in many cases, prove more cost effective than a mainframe with similar power. This reduced price per unit of
  15. 15. 3. Improved Network Technology: Driving the development of computer clusters has been a vast improvement in the technology related to networking, along with a reduction in the price of such technology. Computer clusters are typically connected via a single virtual local area network (VLAN), and the network treats each computer as a separate node. Information can be passed throughout these networks with very little lag, ensuring that data doesn’t bottleneck
  16. 16. 4. Scalability: Perhaps the greatest advantage of computer clusters is scalability they offer. While mainframe computers have a fixed processing capacity, computer clusters can be easily expanded as requirements change by adding additional nodes to the network. 5. Availability: When a mainframe computer fails, the entire system fails. However, if a node in a computer cluster fails, its operations can be
  17. 17. The cluster computing concept also poses three pressing research challenges:  A cluster should be a single computing resource and provide a single system image. This is in contrast to a distributed system where the nodes serve only as individual resources.  The supporting operating system and communication Mechanism must be efficient enough to remove the performance Bottlenecks.
  18. 18.  It must provide scalability by letting the system scale up or down. The scaled-up system should provide more functionality or better performance. The system’s total computing power should increase proportionally to the increase in resources. The main motivation for a scalable system is to provide a flexible, cost effective Information-processing tool.
  19. 19. Cluster Networking Cluster Software Programming Timing Network Selection Speed Selection
  20. 20.  Cluster networking If you are mixing hardware that has different networking technologies, there will be large differences in the speed with which data will be accessed and how individual nodes can communicate. If it is in your budget make sure that all of the machines you want to include in your cluster have similar networking capabilities, and if at all possible, have network adapters from the same manufacturer.  Cluster Software You will have to build versions of clustering software for each kind of system you include in your cluster.
  21. 21.  Timing This is the most problematic aspect of cluster. Since these machines have different performance profile our code will execute at different rates on the different kinds of nodes. This can cause serious bottlenecks if a process on one node is waiting for results of a calculation on a slower node. Programming Our code will have to be written to support the lowest common denominator for data types supported by the least powerful node in our cluster. With mixed machines, the more powerful machines will have attributes that cannot be attained in the powerful machine.
  22. 22. Network Selection There are a number of different kinds of network topologies, including buses, cubes of various degrees, and grids/meshes. These network topologies will be implemented by use of one or more network interface cards, or NICs, installed into the head-node and compute nodes of our cluster. Speed Selection No matter what topology you choose for your cluster, you will want to get fastest network that your budget allows. Fortunately, the availability of high speed computers has also forced the development of high speed networking systems. Examples are : 10Mbit Ethernet, 100Mbit Ethernet, gigabit networking, channel bonding etc.
  23. 23.  Internet Applications  Web serving / searching (Google Search Engine)  ASPs (application service providers)  eMail, eChat, ePhone, eBook, eCommerce ,eBank  Business Applications  E-commerce Applications (,  Database Applications (Oracle on cluster)
  24. 24. Cluster computing is no longer something which people see in science fiction movies. This system of networking between computers is not only necessary to continue to help business become more efficient, but it also helps programs run more quickly while also allowing people across the network cluster to access the same programs, files, and information. It makes sense to do this, doesn’t it? And since people like to communicate in business, it makes sense that you cluster computing is only going to become more popular as the economy rebounds and businesses grow even more.
  25. 25. Clusters are promising Solve parallel processing paradox. New trends in hardware and software technologies are likely to make clusters. Clusters based supercomputers (Linux based clusters) can been everywhere !!  Clusters offer incremental growth and match
  26. 26. nal/10586 htm uting_Today,_v1.1--Chappell.pdf
  27. 27. Any Questions? ?