Platform Shift: How New Business Models Are Changing the Shape of Industry

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Companies that can transform their traditional business models into network models will have a competitive advantage based on new insights into pricing, network effects, supply chains, and strategy. These principles show how dotcom companies like Airbnb, Amazon, Apple and Uber managed, in a relatively short time, to attract millions of clients worldwide. But they apply also to traditional product companies like Sony, shoe companies like Nike, and spice companies like McCormick. New business models help these companies extend existing transactions to new, associated products and services. Platforms beat products every time. This talk reveals the secret of Internet-driven platforms, why they happen, and what changes they imply.

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Platform Shift: How New Business Models Are Changing the Shape of Industry

  1. 1. Barcelona, Spain • October 29-31, 2015 © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Marshall Van Alstyne Boston University & MIT marshall@mit.edu InfoEcon@twitter.com Platform Shift: How New Biz Models Are Changing the Shape of Industry Gartner Research Board March 11, 2015
  2. 2. 2© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com InterBrand: 2013 Best Global Brands
  3. 3. 3© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com These Grew Fastest
  4. 4. 4© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com These are Platforms
  5. 5. 5© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Dominated by Platforms
  6. 6. 6© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Platform Firms Becoming More Important in Economy 3 of top 5 firms in 2015 by market cap. FIRM MARKET CAP Apple 627 Exxon Mobile 385 Microsoft 377 Berkshire Hathaway 357 Google 344
  7. 7. 7© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Platform Firms Becoming More Important in Economy % of top 20 firms by market cap since 2001 Percentage of Platform Firms weighted by MKT CAP (2001-2014) 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2014 MKTCAPWeightedPlatform Firms
  8. 8. 8© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com The Product Business Model is Broken © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  9. 9. 9© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com The Product Business Model is Broken In 2009, BlackBerry had nearly 50% market share in U.S. operating systems, according to IDC. Now: 2.1% 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
  10. 10. 10© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com 1980-2000 Microsoft Platform Beats Apple Product Apple launched the PC revolution but Microsoft licensed widely, built a huge developer ecosystem, 6X larger.
  11. 11. 11© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Apple Feb 5, 1996 Michael Dell - ”Shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders.”
  12. 12. 12© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Interbrand: 2014 Best Global Brands
  13. 13. 13© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Nike Builds a Biz Platform
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 1. Enumerate embeddable features: salty, citrus, sour, toasted, … 2. Get consumer preferences 3. Match to best recipes 4. Mix new combinations, help users create & upload, allow ratings, build a community How would you create a platform around spice? © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  16. 16. 16 Create a whole geometry of flavor combinations
  17. 17. 17© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Products Have Features, Platforms Have Communities Definition: A platform is an open architecture together with a governance model. Platform Potential: System must provide a useful function or service and should provide 3rd party access. Platform Purpose: The goal of the platform is to consummate the match – more & better! Subgoals are seed creation & consumption.
  18. 18. Any enterprise that grows in value by adding information / community can be transformed. The greater the proportion of value, the sooner it will transform. © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  19. 19. © 2014 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Services Protected by Credentialing, Complexity, Regulation & Hard Assets Consumer Goods Home Goods Automotive Conslt: Eden MacC Labor : oDesk $$$: eToro, Kickstr News : Twitter Insurance : ? Law : LegalZoom Education : edX Art & Craft : Etsy Apparel:Lee & Fung Shirts : Threadless Shoes : Nike Fuel Watches : Apple Thermostat : Nest Lighting : Philips Appliance : Haier Rides : Uber Cars : 3d Printed Cars : Mercedes Info & Tech Games : Nintendo Cloud : AWS Search : Google OS : MS Windows Maps : Google APIs PDF : Adobe Movies : Netflix
  20. 20. © 2014 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Food & Agri Protected by Credentialing, Complexity, Regulation & Hard Assets Crop Yield : IBM Spices : McCormick Energy & Mining Heavy Industry Government Farming : eChoupal Mining : Gold Corp Utility : EnerNOC Tractors : Hitachi Engines : GE Predix City : Singapore Medicine Devices : Biomet MRI : Cohealo Healthcare:Harvard
  21. 21. SHIfT HAPPENS So Why Now? It’s more than SMAC Platforms Draw Value from Communities & Network Effects © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  22. 22. © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Network Effects Value rises as more people use the platform Metcalfe’s Law
  23. 23. 23© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com How are these Related? Each Side Attracts More of the Other eBay Buyers Uber Riders Xbox Gamers Amex CardHolders Aga Khan Patients YouTube Viewers AirBnb Renters Tesla Car Drivers Mechanical Turk Jobs LinkedIn Employees Android Users eBay Sellers Uber Drivers Xbox Developers Amex Merchants Aga Khan Doctors YouTube Videographers AirBnb Rooms Tesla Charge Stations Mechanical Turk Laborers LinkedIn Employers Android Developers
  24. 24. More Amex Users … get more Amex Merchants… More Amex Merchants … get more Amex Users… © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  25. 25. More Android Users … get more Android Developers… More Android Developers … get more Android Users… © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  26. 26. In any market with network effects, the focus of attention must shift from inside to outside the firm. © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Reason: You can’t scale network effects inside as easily as outside. Source: Marshall Van Alstyne
  27. 27. Why Platforms Beat Products Every Time See ‘’Platform Envelopment’’ (2011) Strategic Management Journal, Eisenmann, Parker & Van Alstyne © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  28. 28. 28© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Apple iPod pre-Platform (1) Product First Thinking (2) Standard linear value chain (3) User bought music retail (or P2P) (4) Minimal network effects Music Producer ListenerApple iPod Retailer $ $ $
  29. 29. 29© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Apple Platform Apple iPod Combined with iTunes Music Producer Listener Retailer $ $ $ Apple iPod
  30. 30. 30© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Apple iPod post-Platform (1) Remove supply chain inefficiency (2) Triangular platform supply network (3) Apple owns financial chokepoint (4) Apple helps users find content (5) Stronger network effects User Content Apple $$ $
  31. 31. 31© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Sony could have done this. It has many great standalone products. Google is not making this mistake with Android How Apple is Killing Standalone Platforms Lumia Usr Dvp r PSP Usr Ga m MP3 User Music Video TV Games Dvpr Web HTM L eBooks Publi Calls User Zune Usr Mus MicrosoftSonyNokia Apple has vastly stronger network effects.
  32. 32. 32© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Zune Usr Mus Microsoft How Apple is Killing Standalone Platforms Lumia Usr Dvp r PSP Usr Ga m MP3 User Music Video TV Games Dvpr Web HTM L eBooks Publi Calls User SonyNokia So what happened? 2007 Today 2007 Today
  33. 33. 33© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Message for you: A great standalone product is not sufficient. Polycom Speakerphone R1P1 U1 R1P1 U1 Cisco Flip Camera R1P1 U1 HP Calculator How Apple is Killing Standalone Platforms MP3 User Music Video TV Games Dvpr Web HTM L eBook s Publi Calls User
  34. 34. 34© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com MP3 User Music Video TV Games Dvpr Web HTM L eBooks Publi Calls User Photo Usr Upld Flickr Blkbry Usr Dvpr RIM GPS Usr Upld TomTom How Apple is Killing Standalone Platforms Message for you: A great standalone product is not sufficient. Wear Fitness
  35. 35. © 2012 Zimedia Why Apple isn’t Killing Kindle: Amazon Ecosystem © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  36. 36. The giants of the Internet era resemble those of the Industrial era but for the opposite reason. © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Source: Marshall Van Alstyne
  37. 37. 37© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Giants of Demand Side Economies of scale Westinghouse Dynamo 1893 Ford Model T 1908 Carnegie Steel 1905 Vanderbilt Colossus of (Rail) Roads
  38. 38. 38© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Giants of Demand Side Economies of scale Micro Blog Now Social Networks Now Windows OS 1990s-00s Matched Mkts Now
  39. 39. Monetizing Platforms Means Free Pricing is Profitable What changes :: Marketing & Prices © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com See ‘’Strategies for Two Sided Markets” (2006) Harvard Business Review Eisenmann, Parker & Van Alstyne
  40. 40. For work on antitrust regulation, market power & two-sided platforms Jean Tirole: Nobel Laureate in Economics 2015 © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Nobel Prize in Economics 2014
  41. 41. 41© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com To Price a Platform with Network Effects, Who Gets the Subsidy?
  42. 42. If markets are independent, collect profits in both. Price Quantity Market One q1 p1 Price Quantity Market Two q2 p2 See "Two Sided Network Effects” (2006) Management Science, Parker & Van Alstyne
  43. 43. But if markets are coupled, discounting one builds demand in the other. Price Market One Quantity q1 p1 p1 q1 Price Market Two Quantity q2 p2 p2 q2 See "Two Sided Network Effects” (2006) Management Science, Parker & Van Alstyne
  44. 44. 44© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com There are 2 types of Free 1. Cellphones & Minutes, Razors & Blades 2. eBay, Amex, Google, Amazon all use 2-sided platform pricing. Platform Group 2Group 1
  45. 45. Corporate valuation models that underestimate market expansion due to network effects fail to invest What Changes :: Finance © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  46. 46. © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com • Estimate global taxi market • Estimate market share • Est. risk adjusted cash flow • Consider proprietary methods, barriers to competition • Value: $5.9 Billion Aswath Damodaran: NYU Finance professor, Corporate Valuation author, Herb Simon Prize.
  47. 47. Bill Gurley: Venture Capitalist, OpenTable, Zillow, Uber © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com • All true but overlooking network effects. • Prices decline expanding to rental car market and car replacement market and delivery market. • Oh, BTW, already 3x size in 2009 when Uber started. • Value: $17 Billion Source: David Sacks, COO PayPal, CEO Yammer
  48. 48. Platforms Unlock New Value from Spare Resources and User Generated Content What Changes :: Supply Chains © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  49. 49. AirBnb sells users’ spare rooms, competing with hotels that must own them RelayRides sells users’ spare cars, competing with rental firms that must own them © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  50. 50. Instagram sold for $1B not because of contributions from 13 employees but from 30 million users © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  51. 51. 51© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com 2005 2013© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  52. 52. ``In 2015, Uber, the world’s largest taxi company owns no vehicles, Facebook the world’s most popular media owner creates no content, Alibaba the most valuable retailer has no inventory, and Airbnb the world’s largest hotelier owns no real estate.’’ Tom Goodwin, Sr. VP of Strategy Havas Media © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  53. 53. Employees Must See Across the Platform, which Must Support a Shared Data Layer What Changes :: Internal Organization © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  54. 54. Sony was a virtual Galapagos of holding companies © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  55. 55. 56© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  56. 56. 1. All teams will expose their data… 2. Teams must communicate through interfaces. 3. … no other form of interprocess communication allowed 4. Interfaces, without exception, must be externalizable. 5. Anyone who doesn’t do this will be fired. Bezos Platform Mandate © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Source: Yegge Rant
  57. 57. Platforms Open Themselves to Third Party Contributions What Changes :: Innovation © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  58. 58. A platform is a system that can be… adapted to countless needs and niches that the platform’s original developers could not possibly have contemplated…” Mark Andreessen: Venture Capitalist, Netscape Founder, Board HP, eBay© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Source: “The 3 kinds of Platform you Meet on the Internet” – Sept 16, 2007.
  59. 59. 60© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com It’s Working when Users do Something You Didn’t Expect Hay Carrier RacecarFlour Mill Ford Model T
  60. 60. 61© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com It’s Working when Users do Something You Didn’t Expect Snowmobile Goat Carrier Sawmill Mobile Church
  61. 61. 62© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com − Open to .com” Open to developers − The Rise & Ignominius Fall of MySpace – Business Week 2011 Does Openness Work?
  62. 62. 63© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com The Rise & Ignominius Fall of MySpace – Business Week 2011 ‘‘We tried to create every feature in the world and said, ‘O.K., we can do it, why should we let a third party do it?’ ‘’ says (MySpace cofounder) DeWolfe. ‘’We should have picked 5 to 10 key features that we totally focused on and let other people innovate on everything else.’’ Does Openness Work?
  63. 63. 64© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Most firms can only concentrate on most valuable apps Profits increase when others add to platform’s Long Tail You don’t need to own this Platforms Get Enormous Value from 3rd Party Developers
  64. 64. 65© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com  Consider product innovation alone  Harnessing 3rd party resources, innovation occurs at a higher combined rate  Even if a platform starts behind, its value overtakes the product leader  ‘’Permissionless Innovation” protects information asymmetry.  Not only does this fill ecosystem space, hard problems get solved by multiple attempts.  Shed costs, keep 30% gains! Why Platforms Beat Products Time ValueAdded
  65. 65. Platforms will Displace Gatekeepers with Meritocratic Crowds What Changes :: Industry Bottlenecks © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  66. 66. 67© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  67. 67. Forget designers, product buyers, marketers. Threadless uses crowd to guarantee sales. © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Advice from travelers replaces that of travel agents
  68. 68. Goal shifts from control, entry barriers, and differentiation to more valuable market exchanges. What Changes :: Strategy © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  69. 69. 1. Goal is a protected market niche, emphasizing industry barriers 2. Categories are sharp 3. Weapon is cost leadership or product differentiation 4. Inimitable resources you own provide sustained advantage 5. Core competence: focus what you do best Porter’s Five Forces & Resource Based View © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  70. 70. Platform Strategy Differs © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com 1. Goal is transactions volume & creating customer value. Network effects provide sustainability
  71. 71. Platform Strategy Differs © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com 1. Goal is transactions volume & creating customer value. Network effects provide sustainability. 2. Boundaries can be altered
  72. 72. Platform Strategy Differs © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com 1. Goal is transactions volume & creating customer value. Network effects provide sustainability. 2. Boundaries can be altered 3. Competition is multi-layered, more like 3D chess.
  73. 73. Platform Strategy Differs © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Owned / inimitable resources Profits increase when others add to platform’s Long Tail You don’t need to own this 1. Goal is transactions volume & creating customer value. Network effects provide sustainability. 2. Boundaries can be altered 3. Competition is multi-layered, more like 3D chess. 4. Don’t need to own inimitable resources. Have them join you!
  74. 74. What’s Next? © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  75. 75. 76© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com City as Platform
  76. 76. 77© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Energy/Smart Grid as Platform
  77. 77. 78© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Education as Platform
  78. 78. 79© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com Healthcare as Platform
  79. 79. 80© 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com If you believe in the power of people connecting, then embrace platforms. If you convert your product/service to a platform, what would it do, what community would it serve? © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com
  80. 80. THANK YOU QUESTIONS & DISCUSSION © 2015 Parker, Van Alstyne & ChoudaryTwitter: @InfoEcon :: marshall@mit.edu :: PlatformEconomics.com marshall@mit.edu Twitter: @InfoEcon Find research HERE. Find blog posts HERE.

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