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  • 1. Manthan Stepping Stones: Enhancing the quality of primary education Submitted by – Team Name – Depod Institute - IIM Lucknow Team Members - Praveen Anupam Toppo Shalini Tripathi Rigden Tshringla Rajesh Kumar
  • 2. Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges Top focus should be on the Teachers and Curriculum Blocks for enhancing the Quality of Primary Education Scope of the Problem : Providing Quality education to 192 million children in 1.1 million habitats http://www.ssa.nic.in/ Key Stake Holders Inspections • Are frequent checks being conducted? • A central panel to ensure all the funds and grants are utilized properly Curriculum • Is the curriculum Locally designed? • Are the kids able to relate the curriculum to their everyday lives • Rote Learning vs. Practical Application Kids • ST/SC • Kids of Migrant Laborers • Girl Students • Kids with Special Needs ( 32.8 Lakhs) • Out of school students vs. Left Behind students Teachers • Are the Teachers properly trained • Selection Criteria for the same • Are we tapping in the potential teacher pool? • PTR ratio Environment • Availability of proper Sanitation • Availability of Drinking Water • Are Mid day Meals provided Focus Priority to Enhance Quality Secondary Primary Focus Secondary Primary Focus Secondary Quality Education is the most powerful tool of Empowerment Secondary focus – Because already a lot of progress is being made in these fronts
  • 3. to 51.8% in 2011 and further to 53.2% in 2012 Major Problem – The “Out of School” vs. the “Left Behind” children Dilemma • 46.3% of all children in Std. V could not read a Std. II level text . • This proportion further increased to 53.2% in 2012 • More than half of all children in Std. V are at least three grade levels behind where they should be • More than 60% of Std 5 children could not solve a simple division sum in 2012 • 75% of the children could not do a simple division sum in Std. V • The percentage of all children enrolled in Std. III who cannot read a Std. I level text was 61.3% in 2012. Who are they Facts • Nationally, the proportion of children (age 6 to 14) who are not enrolled in school was at 3.3% in 2011 • This stood at 3.5% in 2012 • Drop out rate at 2.75% • While the aim might be universal education, we see that the scenario of those attending school is rather bleak and needs to be given a higher priority Out Of School Left Behind 1. Child Labours 2. Kids put to begging 3. No exposure to Education 1. Kids enrolled in Schools at various levels 2. But are far behind when compared to peers of the same age / Standard The “Left Behind” Segment should be the focus, for which the right Teacher and the Right Curriculum become the Priority Facts Who are they Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 4. Quality Teachers are the Stepping stones to Enhancing Quality Education Current State of our Teachers and System There are 5.23 lakh teacher vacancies at the elementary level. 7.74 lakh teachers already working in the school system are untrained Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, J&K, Jharkhand, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal together account for 6.06 lakh untrained teachers and 9.73 lakh teacher vacancies. The training of school teachers is extremely inadequate and also poorly managed In many states the administration of DIETs is left to bureaucrats who view this as a punishment posting and no pedagogical experience High absenteeism rates In a number of states, funds under various schemes (SSA, EGS and AIE) were used to create “Education Centres” (Shiksha Kendras) rather than proper schools. These typically involve “teachers” who are essentially local women who have just passed Class VIII (or even Class V in some cases) and are paid between Rs. 1000 to Rs. 3000 per month in the different states. They typically receive no training or a 2- week training at best, and may have to teach multi-grade classes often in single rooms The dignity of school teaching as a profession must be restored, many still perceive it as a punishment posting Only 45% teachers were both in school and involved in active teaching (the percentage was less than 25% in some states) Other present teachers were involved in a range of ‘non-teaching’ activities Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 5. • Para Teachers to be eventually faced out • Identify Mandatory Teaching Blocks where a teaching stint can be made compulsory • Rope in PSUs to provide jobs quotas for unemployed graduates who undergo a teaching stint for a set period of time • Enlist help of NGOs to provide recruit potential teachers Revamp the existing Curriculum Model Tap into existing Potential Teacher Pool Decentralize Hiring / Empower one entity for Training • Hiring to be made Decentralized, done by Zilla Parishad on criteria + Gram Panchayat • As of now too many training entities have been created, each with its own standards and training with no coordination. Make one entity overlook the training procedure • Stricter regulations to be put in place, to ensure that no untrained teacher is allowed to teach • Post training Assessments to ensure the teacher is fit to teach the kids • Computer training to help them utilize the ITC based curriculum to the fullest • Create a National Knowledge Network based on the recommendations of NKC, that would have all the courses, tips and suggestions which the teachers can utilize • Enlist select NGOs and organizations to help with the curriculum • Try to implement the CAL Model that was used by Pratham successfully on a large scale • Leverage collective participation of Local communities in the curriculum formation to make the kids be able to relate the study to their everyday lives Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 6. Old Curriculum Proposed RTE act clearly say -It is important for all to adhere to a policy of achieving basic learning outcomes rather than "completing the syllabus" • ICT aided Technology Enabled learning – Replicate the CAL Model by Pratham • Inculcate habit of Questioning and to encourage out of the box thinking • Teachers play a role of motivators / mentors and not just that of a rote aider • English be included early on as receptivity is maximum at primary level • Dynamic Assessment model to continuously test the competency level of the kids • Simple yet substantial goals should be set each year – High Achievement – Low Quantity model • Development of strong ‘reading with comprehension’ skills should be a priority • Focus on holistic development and not just literacy rate • The course books should have Practical examples, include several games that would make it fun for the kids and be something the children can relate to their everyday life • Repetition rate of only 5.08% which is in total contrast with the figures of students lagging behind. Clearly showing the current trend is skewed more on showing great figures and not quality education • There is no uniformity in the structure of elementary education cycle and few states still follow a seven year elementary education cycle • No separate education system for kids with special needs – 32.68 Lakhs of them • Emphasis is more on Rote Learning and not on the Practical applications of the same RecommendationsbasedonextensiveSecondaryResearch Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 7. Reservoir of Teachers that can be tapped into Unemployed Under Graduates Compulsory Teaching Blocks NGOs Tap into existing CTET candidates • 10 Lakh unemployed Graduates in India at present • Provide them with incentives to teach for a period of years to avail benefits in various avenues • After a 1 year stint, they can be given a chance to interview with the PSUs that are a part of SAA as their CSR initiative Mandatory teaching blocks need to be identified – • Civil Services Employees/ Government jobs and PSUs block form around a vacancy of 80,000 each year. Mandatory teaching a part of initial probationary rural stint • Can be made compulsory as a part of the curriculum for Government colleges • Newly hired employees of PSUs which already have CSR tie ups with SSA, can be made to teach for a 1 year stint • Leverage NGOs to hire and train teachers who would then be deployed to teach. • The teachers can be even tapped from Old age homes who would want to teach • NGOs that handle specially abled kids can provide teachers who would be adept at dealing with kids having special needs Tap into the existing potential teachers who already have the pre-requisite skill Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 8. Online NGOs National Knowledge Network Database (contain courses, tips and activities that can be used by teachers) Private School Teacher British Council HeyMath MAD NKC Leverage Collective Participation of Local Communities (Zila Parishad and Block Panchayat Level) Teacher Course Providers Pilot Test Results Media-Pro Primary Kids Localized examples that students can relate to their everyday lives State Education Board Evaluation Create local PTAs (studies show-involving parents increases students performance) SMCs NTS (national testing service) CAL program has a strong effect on math scores ( 0.35 standard deviations in the first year (year 2), and 0.47 standard deviations in the second year (year 3)) Collaboration to decide Curriculum for each State Anushruti For specially challenged kids ICT Enabled CAL Model For certification of language competence Term Evaluations Kids would be tested on basis of their competencies Continuous evaluation to be done by school itself Offline Localized Course Books Continuous Guidance &Query resolution Provideofflinesupporttoteachers The National Database would also facilitate distant online training for teachers at remote locations National Curriculum Revamped Map Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 9. RecruitmentAwareness • Leverage Social Media to spread the word online and at same time conduct sufficient offline awareness building as well • Conduct workshops in Colleges to show the importance of teaching • Radio and Newspapers to make prospective teachers aware of the scheme • PSUs that are already a part of SSA can include teaching programme as part of the CSR initiative • Bottom’s Up Criteria : Performance review and recommendation by GP/SMC, Peer Contribution • Decentralization by enabling Zilla parishads and Gram Panchayats to recommend locally available prospective teachers for training • All data to be mapped to a National Teachers Network Database • Recruitment can be through online mode, through NGO, through District offices and through Mandatory Teaching Blocks Assessment/ Training • Assessment mandatory prior and after the training. A teacher who fails the test prior training would not be allowed to teach • Cafeteria training model – where teachers can opt for the required session rather than going through the entire module – Applicable to those teachers who have already been teaching • Mandatory pre service training for newly inducted teachers. • Distant online learning for teachers in remote locations • Enlist retired teachers and personnels to impart training • Single Training module and assessment standards should be used throughout Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 10. Online Mapping DIET NGOs National Teachers Network Database (would contain data of every teacher enrolled and their background) Pratham TeachForIndia.org Training Pilot Test Results MAD Hiring ZPs or GPs (Zilla or group panchayats) Evaluation 33% are Para- Teachers Recommendations done from locally capable teachers (Decentralizing) In Vadodara, in the first year, the difference in post- test scores between treatment and comparison groups was 0.18 standard deviations for math and 0.13 for language. The measured effect is larger in the second year, at 0.40 for math and 0.29 for language. SK (Shiksha karmis) Associate (Adhyapak Teachers) Masters (Madhya Adhyapak) SCERT Balsakhi Model Mandatory Teaching Blocks Government College Grads Fresh Recruits in PSUs Civil Servants Eventually get rid of this SIEMAT CTE BITE Initial hiring into a pool of available teachers by ZP on technical criteria (Apprentice Period) Bottoms Up Criteria: Decentralization Focus Performance review and recommendation by GP/SMC, Peer Contribution Greater permanence at end of apprentice period based on comprehensive evaluation Government Training Centers Regular Teachers PTAsSMCsPTR Level PromotionTransition Training Module is decided by one entity and is followed across, same evaluation standards are also used across National Teacher Recruitment / Hiring / Evaluation Map Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges
  • 11. Problem Statement Proposed Solution Implementation Plan Challenges Social •Making Teaching mandatory might have some resistance initially from the groups •Resistance might also be seen in the Assessment policy, as many might believe they are capable to teach and yet may not pass the test Political •Might decide to Prioritize other Blocks rather than Curriculum or Quality Teachers •Discontinuity when power changes happen at Government •Extensive coordination is required, and the plan shouldn’t be altered with each ruling government Economical •Funding required for the project might have backlogs •Delay in sanctioning of funds may hamper the progress
  • 12. References • http://www.careers360.com/news/3448-1-71-lakh-Govt-PSU-jobs-up-for-grabs • http://www.teindia.nic.in/Articles.aspx • http://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Articles/Articles_23feb12/pritchett_pande_decentralization_education_i ndia.pdf • http://ssa.nic.in/page_portletlinks?foldername=pedagogy • http://mhrd.gov.in/policy_initiatives • http://www.knowledgecommission.gov.in/reports/ • www.asercentre.org/education/India/status/p/143.html • http://www.knowledgecommission.gov.in/focus/school.asp • indiancag.org/manthan/resources • 9thPlanWG • Analysis of Pratham initiatives - Banerjee_et-al_Remedying Education Evidence • Decentralization as a remedy to Primary Education - pritchett_pande_decentralization_education_india