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  1. 1. • Mohit Shukla • Aditya Jain • Nitin Kumar Singh • S. Kranthi Kumar • Arpit Jangid College: IIT Kanpur Stepping Stones: Enhancing the quality of primary education TEAM DETAILS “The Destiny of India is now being shaped into her classrooms”
  2. 2. SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM Over 99 % of the 7.951 lakh teachers who appeared for the latest Central Teacher Eligibility Test, a benchmark for teacher eligibility, failed to clear the exam. This is largely due to the outdated B.Ed. System. According to an NCERT paper, this program is very short and focuses on "rote memorizing "rather than "teaching for understanding". Teacher’s ConditionStudent’s Condition So far the policies on Primary Education have been Quantity Oriented which witnessed a major fall in Quality of Education resulting in poor skills of students. CAUSE OF PROBLEMS • There is tendency to over report expenditures , particularly at lower level of administration. Thus actual utilization reported for given fiscal may be higher. • Nearly 1/4th of fund 2 remain UNUTILIZED !!!!! Inadequate Budget Under Utilization of Funds 1) Fund Problems The school should be the last expenditure upon which India should be willing to economize. “Problems are not stop signs , they are guidelines” – Robert H. Schuller • References provided at the end Ref: 3 • One measure of judging the adequacy of public spending on education is its ratio to the country’s GDP. On this count as seen as in fig. below India lags behind other developing countries like Brazil and Vietnam. • A significant portion of SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) funds are set aside for paying salaries to teachers and for infrastructure leaving little funds for training , innovation and monitoring. Mismatch between Spending and Needs
  3. 3. 2)System Problems Infrastructure Teachers’ accountability is a Central Issue •Good physical infrastructure is a basic pre-requisite of a school. •According to the present scenario, primary schools require a substantial budget to be spent at the infrastructural development of the schools. •Basic requirements like drinking water, toilets are not available at many of the schools. •About 50.9%4 of the schools requires repair works. •36.2 % of the schools have crowded (multi grade) class rooms. •44.9% of the schools require toilets. •34.5 % and 34.7% require furniture and drinking water respectively. •Motivation and effort level of Govt. school teachers in India is a serious problem. •High level of Teacher Absence(30%) ranging from 15% to 42% across various states. •“Good Salary, No Responsibility” Mentality of young people aspiring to become teacher needs to be changed. •Teachers are also not properly trained. Untrained teachers 5- 15.5% High school or less qualification-12.3% 25 56 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Teacher's absent on single day Teacher's not teaching Percentage Source : “Teachers’ Absence in India” Journal of the European Economic Association. WHY THIS PROBLEM ? “Goldman Sachs counts the lack of quality education as one of the 10 factors holding India back from rapid economic growth.” POOR HEALTHPOVERTY UNEMPLOYMENT CRIME LACK OF EDUCATION IS ROOT CAUSE OF MANY PROBLEMS Poor patient literacy “hampers healthcare” POVERTY ILLITERACY engenders POVERTY ILLITERACY Leading to unemployment in India. ILLITERACY is father of crime “Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the nation.”
  4. 4. SOLUTION We introduce a 4 dimension Learn by FUN – Mission (solution) to the above problem which aims at improving both quality and quantity of Primary Education 1. Improving Teachers’ Quality “WE NEED TO IMPROVE HOW WE RECRUIT, SUPPORT, EVALUATE & REWARD TEACHERS TO GET THE BEST TEACHING FOR KIDS” Here’s HOW •Research shows that the students who are taught by really good teachers can make as much as 1.5 x worth of progress in a single year. •We introduce “HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT” in education to improve teachers’ quality, supply, distribution and evaluation system. A) GO FOR TALENT We need to draw more talented people into teaching i) We have to encourage College grads who majored in other, more rigorous subjects and people who have pursued another career and then decide to share their experience by becoming teachers. ii) We propose increment in pay scale of teachers. Identify what makes a good teacher i) There has been little focus on qualities predicting success in teaching. Having an advanced degree doesn’t mean someone will perform better in the classroom. Experience doesn’t either. ii) Communication skills are important for teachers. People who score well on tests like the verbal sections consistently make good teachers. But overall, school districts can help figure out the puzzle by collecting a lot of information about the teachers they hire, and then seeing what qualities consistently show up in those who become successful teachers. Make Results Count i) Current evaluation of teachers contains little to show who are outstanding teachers & who are poor performers ii) Evaluations should take into account student progress, thus recognizing teachers who help low-achieving students improve. iii)Schools should create a feedback loop that recognizes progress, identifies problems, offers help, and measures results. Evaluations should have consequences. The best teachers should be rewarded, and low performers should be encouraged to seek other work Help Teachers Improve i) Introduce strong programs for new teachers. These include mentoring by an experienced teacher, opportunities to collaborate with colleagues, and extra resources. These ideas make sense; we need more of them and we should insist that new teachers get manageable assignments until they’re more experienced. ii) Effective professional development should be tied to the school’s goals and its curriculum. Data on where students need additional help, or where teachers need better skills, should determine priorities. Teachers should be encouraged to work and learn together, so that lessons are implemented. Top teachers should choose their own enrichment courses, but less effective teachers should be directed to activities to improve their skills. Learn by Fun Mission 1) Teachers are well trained and motivated. 2) Parents and Children are motivated.
  5. 5. New Teacher Selection Method Reward Excellence i) Teachers’ paychecks are calculated based on how long they’ve been teaching and what degrees they have. They don’t get paid extra for doing a good job or for taking on a really tough assignment and succeeding. And schools can’t pay more in fields like math and science, where private sector jobs offer higher salaries. ii) Reworking teachers’ salaries could help improve quality across the board. A sensible salary structure would make it easier to attract talented people, encourage teachers to take on tough assignments, reward those who do an outstanding job, hold on to smart young teachers (who now must wait years to reach peak earnings), and entice people with hard-to-match skills to consider becoming a teacher 1) Graduation degree 2) An entrance test to get enrolled in Bachelor of education program 3) Bachelor of Education program 4) B-Ed course training at NGO 5) A one year training program at an NGO after B. Ed that would require a compulsory recommendation 6) Teacher entrance exam Teacher level 1 • The major problem in the primary education today is the accountability of the teachers, providing them training at NGO will introduce the teachers about the condition of primary education in the country and will instill in them the feeling to improve primary education. • At the NGO training the trainee would teach, take part in NGO activity and would promote primary education. • Stipend would be provided to the trainee while training at the NGO but they would be required to earn a recommendation from the NGO with respect to the teaching qualities. • In case an applicant is not able to receive a recommendation he would have to extend his training for a year to earn the recommendation. • The B-Ed program must be improved so that they could produce better human resource for teaching. • The teacher would be appointed at level 1 and would be promoted on the basis of talent and experience. & ( ) ( ) ( ) d Quality f effort d Knowledge  ( , )Quality f Knowledge Effort ( ) 0 0 ( ) d Quality effort d Knowledge    .Quality const MATHEMATICAL EQUATION – TEACHING QUALITY
  6. 6. Parents as well as children should be motivated for school rather than attracted by incentives.2. Smart Learning Quality Improvement Interactive Tools Course Modification Interactive methods of teaching invoke the curiosity and interest among the students. Providing interactive tools like puzzles, card board games, pictorial presentation, learning toys. Learning process can be made more effective through story telling, role playing, drama, speaking and listening. Currently teaching process is traditional and orthodox, which doesn’t give teachers enough freedom to interpret and implement the course structure, moreover the course content doesn’t spark interest in the teachers to teach. Entire course structure needs to be revamped making it more interactive and interesting. Current education system doesn’t focus on conceptual learning and developing the skill to learn. This results in lack of interest leading to poor performance of students. Frequent seminars and sessions will be organized in order to provide the teachers new methodology of teaching and to motivate them towards their contribution to society. These workshops and sessions will be taken by renowned educationists of India. In India there are many teachers who want to learn about teaching methods and techniques to improve their performance but they don’t get any help. These sessions will give them exposure and it will motivate other teachers towards their profession too. Interactive Learning Through Projector  One projector will be provided in each school to show the children different educational videos and animations .  There will be separate period of video lectures in every class once a day. Hence only one projector will suffice in a school.  This scheme will provide motivation to teachers to teach with more innovation and students to learn with more eagerness.  The animation and videos will be developed by NCERT as a part of interactive course material. Different interns under NIQI (as proposed under system modifications ) will help in designing these videos.  Projectors will be used for entertainment and social awareness purposes apart from educational purposes. So this will provide a healthy and regular entertainment which they can’t afford on their own.
  7. 7. NCERT will release modified course structure every 5 years + interactive tools will be provided every 3 years. State Government will incorporate the topics related to regional conditions surrounding the students, to the course structure provided by the NCERT; thereby providing students more familiar topics to study A teaching manual will be developed for each class describing interactive games and activities for learning the concepts. This manual will provide a perfect blend of theoretical aspects and practical knowledge For Maths puzzles , toys illustrating different operations and pictorial ads will be provided. For Language role playing, drama, group works, speaking & listening, card board games Implementation Impact  Modernization of course structure will largely affect the learning process of students. They will learn faster and with more interest.  Teachers will teach with more motivation and interest.  Interactive methods will ensure decrease in drop-out rate.  Learning by doing will provoke interest in subjects. It will stimulate creativity and turn knowledge into skills.  Proper primary education will boost children’s interest in education thereby producing more educated and skilled human resource.  Likewise an educated person will have more opportunities than a primary school drop-out.  Socio-economic gaps will be overcome.  Educated society will be aware of their responsibilities and their rights and hence they will make an efficient system by actively participating in the democracy.
  8. 8. 3)Urgent Need of NGO’s in the Education Sector “Government no doubt takes up several welfare programs but most of them do not succeed as they do not reach the targeted group. Due to lack of personal interest these programs get wasted. However, this is not the case with NGO. These are service oriented people and strive towards the well being of the community at large. Both government and India NGO need to work in collaboration towards achieving a common vision. NGOs are definitely competent in shaping policies appropriate for primary education.” The goal of ‘education for all’ cannot be realized without eliminating girl child illiteracy. IIMPACT, promoted by the alumni of IIM Ahmadabad, reaches out to a large number of girls in rural and remote areas, complementing the government’s efforts and working with village communities to set up learning centers that are close to home and provide bridge education that prepares students for admission in mainstream schools in Class 6. Tahmina (photo bove) lives in Mewat (Haryana). Thanks to her education, she was able to help her proud father read and interpret a legal notice. PROBLEMS FACED BY NGO’s Though NGO’s like Teach for India, Avanti Fellow’s etc. are working very fine for upliftment and bringing new reforms for improving Primary education in India. However there are several factors where there is need to Focus like : 1) Infrastructure needs. 2) Man power needs. 3) Need for organizational support. 4) Financial constraints. “If NGOs are to play a policy role in education, two areas that have been neglected will need to be addressed 1) NGO capacity building 2) Organizational development.” Changes / Solution • Under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009, one of the rules for recognition of schools require that the school buildings or other structures or the grounds are used only for the purposes of education and skill development; However, NGOs active in rural areas, regions with difficult terrain or in slum clusters do not have the wherewithal to erect concrete structures to specifically serve as school buildings. Therefore, a suitable amendment is recommended to rules for recognition of schools with classes I to VIII, especially those in rural areas, regions with difficult terrain or in slum clusters. In addition, it is recommended that the Government invite corporate and NRIs to channelize private investment for infrastructure development for special bridging schools run by NGOs. This could be in the form of incremental tax incentives offered for Adopt-A- School programs or similar project funding A) Amend RTE Act to allow recognition of special schools run by NGOs
  9. 9. •Most NGOs we surveyed do not avail SSA funding because of the strict eligibility conditions, extensive red tape and corruption at the grassroots level. A few that do, rely mostly on help in the form of teaching aids and books. It is recommended that the mode of SSA intervention be changed to place funds directly in the hands of school authorities. This can be achieved by sanctioning cash- equivalent credit points to every recognized school in targeted backward districts across the country every year for a period of five years. The revamped SSA program could be named after a prominent historical figure to enable a new identity and positive brand recall. To encourage support by the state administrations/Governments, performance evaluations can be linked to the utilization of SSA credit notes and there can be state-level awards for highest performing districts. B) Modify Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan intervention model •It is recommended that donors, especially corporate who understand the complexity of running an organization, appreciate the need for allowing up to 15% of project costs as outlay for overheads and staff salaries. Also, funding should ideally be long-term, renewable and for a period of not less than three years Thirdly, although the idea of matching employee contribution is gaining popularity with corporate, it would be very helpful if, in such modes of donation, a minimum amount is guaranteed each year irrespective of employee contributions. Fourth, corporate and donor institutions need to look beyond cash and equipment and examine the possibility of placing on time bound deputations, a few of their employees with partner NGOs who otherwise lack the ability to offer satisfying careers to marketers, fund-raisers and strategists. And last but not the least, corporate should avoid dumping old IT hardware, laptops, computers and peripherals on NGOs C) Refresh Corporate Funding; no “tokenisms” •NGOs need to evolve in maturity and incorporate practices that strengthen their sustainability and longevity. The empanelment requirements instituted by donor agencies like Give India and Credibility Alliance are a starting point in this direction. The Deloitte Center for Leadership & Community has also evolved a maturity model index to evaluate the capability and impact of NGOs. Increasingly, private and corporate donors are using various objective parameters as terms of reference before committing funds to various causes. It is recommended that the Government too, apply a revised set of transparent and objective criteria to approve NGOs whose donors receive income tax exemptions under section 80G. This would spark off a series of reforms in the nonprofit sector and allow it to prepare for the massive influx of funds when the Companies Law is modified to mandate investment of 2 per cent of corporate profits into social responsibility efforts. D) Incentivize Maturity and Governance
  10. 10. 4. System Modifications A) Attendance of Teachers using finger print machine •In order to check the fraud attendance management of teachers we will introduce fingerprint technique for attendance. •Attendance would be taken on twice a day and the results would instantly be send to some authority. •It would ensure the regular presence of teachers at school •Teachers and students will be evaluated by random checkings as well as predefined annual checking. •Random checking would evaluate the student’s knowledge and hence the checking authority will grade the school on a scale of 10. • Annual checking would involve an OMR based test of the students which would contain questions on all the subjects. • OMR based test would help collect data from all the schools and hence would maintain a check on the performance of the school. B) Evaluation of Teachers and Students C) Vidyarthi Protshana Yojana •A scheme to provide monetary prizes /medals/certificates to class toppers (I-III)would motivate the students towards studies D) National Internship for Quality Improvement (NIQI) •Potential and Interested students from different colleges (IIT’s/NIT’s) must be encouraged to support primary education. • Students would gain Certificates and Stipend benefit provided by the Govt. , whereas the primary schools would obtain Human Resource for the development of Education. •Feedback from such students can be helpful in introducing measures to improve quality and course material of Primary Education. E) Improving the Teacher Student Ratio The teacher student ratio in primary schools needs to be increased especially for states like U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal who have teacher student ratio of 1/45,1/57,1/44,1/39. The required teacher student ratio is at least 1/30. Therefore the government must select potential students to increase the teacher student ratio. If the government does not have sufficient funds then it must select adhoc teachers or volunteers for the primary education. F) Option of Fail. Present System of passing each &every student has serious flaws. Students do not have fear of failing which has seriously degraded quality of education. Passing every child is not education. We have to understand that getting degree is not education but learning and understanding. In short if in extreme case , student is not performing up to the mark, then he/she must be failed as there is no point in sending him/her to higher class.
  11. 11. Proposed changes Total no of device/ benefiters Calculation Amount Finger print device -553350 schools - 1 device/school - Rs 2000 per device Rs 553350*2000 110.67 cr. Vidyarthi Prothsahan Yojna -553350 schools - Rs 900 per class - Upto class 5 (6 classes) Rs 553350*900* 6 298.809 cr. Projector -553350 school - 1 projector/ school Rs 553350* 5000 276.675 cr. National Internship For Quality Improvement - 50 students - 15000 p.m. stipend Rs 50*15000 7.5 lakhs Total Amount:- One Time : 387.345 cr. Yearly : 298.884 cr. Total : 686.229 cr. BUDGET REQUIRED FOR PROPOSED SOLUTION One Time Investment Yearly Requirement •Corruption and carelessness will pose a major challenge in implementation. It is very difficult to keep a check on each and every level. •Developing an entirely new course structure to be adoptable for different regions of India is quite challenging . •Maintenance of different interactive course material will be difficult. •In teacher selection process, credibility of NGO certificates will be an issue. •Involvement and promotion of NGOs at such a large scale may be an obstacle for our proposed solution. •Attracting quality teachers who are motivated towards teaching will remain a major problem in spite of all the efforts. •The proposed budget may also pose a challenge. CHALLENGES TO PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
  12. 12. References / Annexures • 1 Source : ASER Website : • 2 Source : “Release of funds and expenditure - 2011-12”. http : • 3 Source : Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan Report 2012-13. • 4 Source : Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan Report 2012-13. • 5 Source: “Teacher’s Absence in India” – Journal of European Economic Association. • Others : *The Right of children to free and compulsory education act- 2009 – MHRD. * Summary Report – Department of School Education and Literacy.