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  1. 1. Enhancing Primary Education in India Team Name: Bhavishya-II College: IIT-Bombay
  2. 2. Primary Education Primary healthcare Empowerm ent of women Public Distribution System Employabilit y of youth Agricultural productivity Timely justice to all Civic Amenities Research and innovation Electoral reforms in politics Social welfare to informal sector workersThe youth of first learners is expected to become the enlightener of Indian future Major fraction of India’s problems have taken huge shape because of inability and ignorance shown by people. The youth of first learners is expected to become the enlightener of Indian future. Education empowers people with skills of understanding, analysing and decision making.
  3. 3. Possible Concerns of Stakeholders Government Infrastructure Access to quality education Awareness about education High Learning outcomes Teachers Adequate Salary Location of posting Parents Safety of children School Environment School Proximity Students Interesting curriculum Government • 10.2% growth in density to 3.55 schools/10 sqkm. in last 5 years • High Awareness: Enrollment of 96.7% children with 50.2% of girls in 2012 Teachers • Salary is 3-5 times more than private sector • Job security is an additional benefit Parents • High enrollment suggests that these issues are not stopping parents from sending their wards to school Students • These problems are inherent in the system and need a paradigm change in the methodology of imparting education Legend: Green = Not a major concern Red = Major concern to be tackled first
  4. 4. Measuring the Quality of Education • Despite spending thousands of crores on education, there is no provision to track the impact of government’s efforts • According to APRESt survey, infrastructure, decreasing teacher pupil ratio, high teacher salary etc. have no correlation with learning outcomes, traditionally believed otherwise • Hence, all our efforts have not yielded desired results WHY? • Mid-term evaluations to measure the learning growth and provide feedback to the teacher for motivation and improvement scope • End-term evaluation to assess the skills acquired and learning growth • Making learning outcomes an explicit goal in Results Framework Document (RFD) of MHRD • Not disclosing individual assessments in order to curb student stress WHAT? • State and National level committees to implement the policy in schools in their jurisdiction • Committees to prepare a document listing out how to measure skills in the tests • Extending contracts to private companies to conduct the tests • Use these results for internal monitoring and assessment of the system HOW?
  5. 5. Monitoring reading and arithmetic skills primary school students A mid term evaluation to ensure regular learning and to provide feedback to teachers An end term evaluation to measure yearly learning growth of students Evaluation techniques to be decided by education boards Web portal to make findings accessible to authorities Government can collaborate with private companies and NGOs to conduct the evaluation process Collaboration with private sector: Gov. has collaborated with TCS to provide passport to Indian citizens resulting in improved efficiency Collaboration with NGOs: NGOs like ASER, Pratham are actively working in this field Average cost per student per evaluation: ₹20 Cost per school (average 107 students): ₹2150 Yearly expense per school (2 tests/yr): ₹4300 Other expenses: ₹700 Total yearly expense per school: ₹5000 Total schools: 0.85 million Total expense: ₹4.25 billion Auxiliary expenses: ₹50 million Total expense: ₹4.3 billion Measuring the Quality of Education Approximately 0.65% of the annual education budget
  6. 6. Causes Identified High absence rate of teachers Irresponsible Attitude of teachers Ineffective teaching Lack of incentives High Job security Proposed Solutions Attendance of teachers and students on start and end of daily instruction Incentives to teachers based on performance of students, attendance and several other factors Biometric Attendance Monetary Incentives Substandard Education in India 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Students scoring above 60% marks in grade 4th & 5th Boys Girls Datanotavailable 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Arithmetic skills of students of grade 5th Substraction Division
  7. 7. Cost Estimation total number of government schools – 8,00,000 approx. One time installation cost – ₹ 400-500 crore. Annual maintenance cost – ₹ 50-100 crore. *(rough estimation of costs) Scalability Can be started as a pilot project in some selected districts Expanded on the lines of cash infusion system Biometric machines should be battery driven keeping in mind the unavailability of regular power in many regions. • Average teacher absence rate of 25% observed in a study conducted by APRESt Requirement • Will help monitor attendance and hence in decrease in absence rate • Will help identify fraudulent enrolments Advantages • Attendance of teachers and students 2 times a day • All the data to be collected and analysed to generate reports at district/state/national level and make them accessible through web portal. Implementation • Private tender can/should be given for installation and maintenance of machines as well as for studying data, summarizing and reporting. Private Tender Biometric Attendance
  8. 8. PROPOSED MODEL TO CALCULATE INCENTIVES 10% of annual salary as incentive can be given to teachers for extra- ordinary efforts towards education • 30% incentive if meet the predecided minimum requirement • Additional 20% incentive on extra effort towards quality 50% weightage to end term evaluation performance • 20% incentive if meet predecided minimum requirement 20% weightage to mid term evaluation performance • Incentive proportional to (actual attendance – minimum requirement 30% weightage to teacher’s attendance According to APRESt survey incentive based method is 10-15 times more cost effective than decreasing pupil- teacher ratio Individual incentives given to a teacher is more effective than incentives given to group Awards for the teaching excellence can be distributed to teachers for their extra-ordinary efforts Improved teacher attendance Teachers teach enthusiastically Better Performance of Students Student learning improved Incentives to teachers Monetary Incentives
  9. 9. •Conduction of bi-yearly evaluation process by Private firms •Biometric attendance machine maintenance to avoid discrepancy in data •Good performance begets bonus but there is no penalty for underperforming •Model will not motivate teachers content with their basic pay •Incorporation of penalty in the model would see opposition of Teacher Associations •Measuring reading skills involve a subjective component, therefore to ensure common careful evaluation criterion •Evaluators taking the tests should be as objective as possible Challenges to proposed models Transparent Execution No penalty Clause Simple evaluation test
  10. 10. • Karthik Muralidharan, Venkatesh Sundararaman.2011. “Teacher Performance Pay: Experimental Evidence from India” • Karthik Muralidharan.2012. “Long-Term Effects of Teacher Performance Pay : Experimental Evidence from India” • Karthik Muralidharan .2013. “Priorities for Primary Education Policy in India’s 12th Five-year Plan” • Michael Kremer, Nazmul Chaudhury, F. Halsey Rogers, Karthik Muralidharan, Jeffrey Hammer. “TEACHER ABSENCE IN INDIA: A SNAPSHOT” • “District information System for Education” • “RSA Animate - Changing Education Paradigms”. • “Inequalities 2013: Karthik Muralidharan on Measuring Learning Trajectories with Longitudinal Data”. • “ASER”. Bibliography