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Presentation on the KiuFunza Initiative by Youdi Schipper of Twaweza


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Presentation on the KiuFunza Initiative by Youdi Schipper of Twaweza. This was presented at the Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, on June 19, 2014, to an audience of researchers.

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Presentation on the KiuFunza Initiative by Youdi Schipper of Twaweza

  1. 1. KiuFunza Improving Early Grade Learning Outcomes Youdi Schipper 19 June 2014 COSTECH, Dar es Salaam
  2. 2. •The learning problem •What is KiuFunza? •How to assess performance? •Test and Results Integrity •Payment of Incentives •Take Aways Outline
  3. 3. The 2012 CSEE results crisis
  4. 4. Introduction: Realities of Primary School Education 2010 2011 Kiswahili 32.7% 28.3% English 7.7% 11.5% Mathematics 30.3% 30.4% Uwezo Results: Percentage of Standard III pupils who were able to complete the Standard II exercises by year and subject
  5. 5. Flat learning profiles in East Africa
  6. 6. • Teacher Data •The average teacher salary is TZS575,000 (€254)/month, pre-tax, inclusive of allowances. •47% of teachers report that, if they could start over, they would not choose teaching as a career. •1/3 of teachers report having missed class at least once in the past week. Evidence from our baseline 2013
  7. 7. • Large expansion in primary school enrollment • High student to teacher ratios • Teachers often not in class • Capitation Grant payments fall short of policy • Poor learning outcomes • What should be done? Descriptive data show
  8. 8. What is KiuFunza?
  9. 9. •A portmanteau of two Kiswahili words •Kiu which means thirst •Kujifunza which means to learn •Together KiuFunza means thirst to learn KiuFunza
  10. 10. • Capitation Grant, current policy (input): transfer payments for inputs directly to school accounts • TZS 10,000 (€4.4) per student • Normal policy rules on spending, accountability apply • Cash on Delivery, policy innovation (teacher incentive) • Grades 1, 2 and 3 • Test subjects: Kiswahili, English, Mathematics • TZS 5,000 (€2.2) per test passed is paid to responsible teacher; TZS 1,000 (€0.44) per test passed is paid to Head Teacher • Combination arm Intervention Design
  11. 11. • 11 Districts, randomly sampled • 35 schools in each district • 4 intervention groups in each district • COD: 7 schools • CG: 7 schools • COD & CG: 7 Schools • Control: 14 schools RCT Design COD Yes No CG Yes 7 7 No 7 14 (control) Number of Schools per treatment group per district
  12. 12. Intervention districts
  13. 13. How to assess performance?
  14. 14. • Appropriate and legitimate • Goldilocks: Not too hard and not too easy, but Just Right. • Based on the Uwezo test, but with more grade- specific variation. • According to Tanzanian syllabus • Test made by university specialists on curricular and test development KiuFunza Tests
  15. 15. Test and Results Integrity
  16. 16. • Test set randomly assigned to student • We created a Random Numbers Table • Test set to be administered to student was determined using the Random Numbers Table • First letter of student’s last name and • Second digit of the day, selected test set • The tests were also conducted one-on-one and with independent implementers not the teachers Test Integrity
  17. 17. • Choice between: • Bank account (teacher liabilities) • Mobile money account (innovative, but not without its problems) • Irregularities in payment information delayed payment • Two teachers deceased before payment was arranged • Next of kin issues • Third party payments not allowed Payment of Incentives
  18. 18. • Blamed any dismal results on student anxiety and fear • Students are not used to the one-on-one testing style • Blamed any dismal results on many exogenous factors • Rain, testing after end-of-year tests were conducted • Want teachers themselves to test the students • Overall positive feedback and feel the tests were transparent and fair Teacher Sentiments
  19. 19. • KiuFunza is an intervention aimed at improving learning outcomes in early-grade education in Tanzania designed as an RCT • Aim is to demonstrate how current government policy can be implemented effectively and • Identify whether paying teachers for the performance of their students has impact on learning outcomes • Measuring and rewarding performance has practical constraints that can be non-trivial Take Aways
  20. 20. Ahsante Sana Questions and Discussion