Features Of Civilization

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Components of civilization

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Features Of Civilization

  1. 1. Comes from the Latin word civitas which literally means city-state
  2. 2. Features of Civilization
  3. 3. Permanent Permanent settlement, part of life by the people who had learned to master the environment; this settlement left permanent structures, artifacts and records that showed how the
  4. 4. Cities As farmers settled in river valleys, they began to grow surplus or extra food; this extra food increased the population of the settlements; in time, the settlements grew into cities (e.g. Ur and Babylon).
  5. 5. As cities expanded, the food supply and irrigation systems needed to be maintained; governments, such as councils or religious leaders, began to oversee the business and existence of the cities. Organized Central Governments
  6. 6. Organized Religions Religious leaders would conduct elaborate ceremonies to appease the gods and ensure a bountiful harvest; floods and droughts were blamed on the gods’ anger so rituals were conducted in the temples.
  7. 7. Job Specialization Artisans and craftsmen were needed to maintain specific items and tasks; Now, some concentrated on teaching, scribing, stonecutting and so forth.
  8. 8. Social Classes As jobs became specialized so did the status and needs of certain individuals; the need for an educated religious leader was more respected than an unskilled worker; herders were needed for the food, while masons were needed for building; the slave was on the lowest rank of the social ladder; warriors and kings were on top.
  9. 9. Writing System Records were needed to keep accounts on trade goods and food storage; writing was needed because the information became too great; in addition, one needed to express more complex ideas such as "belief" and "social order" where pictures and words simply would not suffice.
  10. 10. Art and Architecture This expressed the beliefs and values of a civilization; often the art was used to impress visitors and people about the beauty and power of a king or community.
  11. 11. Public Works The government would order these, although costly, to aid and benefit the community; such things as a wall to protect from attack or a canal to aid in irrigation would help insure the survival of a people.

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