AP WH Chapter 11 ppt


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Chapter 11 - The Americas - Maya, Aztec, Inca

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AP WH Chapter 11 ppt

  1. 1. Peoples & Civilizations of the Americas 200-1500 C.E.
  2. 2. Classic-Era Culture & Society in Mesoamerica 200-1500 C.E.
  3. 3. Teotihuacán <ul><li>Large Mesoamerican city. </li></ul><ul><li>Height of its power – 450-600 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Population of 125,000 to 200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had pyramids and temples where human sacrifice was carried out. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Growth of Teotihuacán <ul><li>Possible by forced relocation of farm families to the city by agricultural innovations like: </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation works </li></ul><ul><li>floating gardens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These helped to support a larger population. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Living Quarters <ul><li>Apartment-like stone buildings housed commoners and artisans. </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans made pottery, obsidian tools, and weapons for export. </li></ul><ul><li>Elite lived in separate residential compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Elites controlled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rule <ul><li>Ruled by alliances of wealthy families rather than by kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Military was used primarily to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protect and expand long-distance trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that farmers paid taxes or tribute to the elite. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Collapse <ul><li>Teotihuacán collapsed around 650 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mismanagement of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conflict within the elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>invasion </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Teotihuacán City Plan
  9. 9. Pyramid of the Moon
  10. 10. Avenue of the Dead
  11. 11. Architecture
  12. 12. Remains
  13. 13. The Maya <ul><li>Single culture living in modern Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, and southern Mexico but never formed a politically unified state. </li></ul><ul><li>Various Maya kingdoms fought each other for regional dominance. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Map of Mayan Territory
  15. 15. Agricultural Productivity <ul><li>Drained swamps </li></ul><ul><li>Built elevated fields </li></ul><ul><li>Terraced fields </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Managed forest resources to increase production of desired products </li></ul>
  16. 16. City-States <ul><li>Largest city-states dominated neighboring city-states and agricultural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed impressive and beautifully decorated buildings and monuments by using levers and stone tools. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mayan Observatory
  18. 18. The Cosmos <ul><li>To Maya, consisted of three layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underworld </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temple architecture reflected this cosmology </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers and elites served as priests to communicate with residents of supernatural worlds. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mayan Pyramid
  20. 20. Military Forces <ul><li>Fought for captives, not for territory </li></ul><ul><li>Elite captives were sacrificed </li></ul><ul><li>Commoners were enslaved </li></ul>
  21. 21. Mayan Women <ul><li>Elite women participated in bloodletting rituals and other ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely had political power </li></ul><ul><li>Non-elite women probably played an essential role in agricultural and textile production. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Mayan Technology <ul><li>Developed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maya calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maya writing system </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Mayan Hieroglyphics
  24. 24. Mayan Calendar
  25. 25. Mayan Decline <ul><li>Most city-states were abandoned or destroyed between 800-900 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption of Mesoamerican trade upon fall of Teotihuacán </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental pressure caused by overpopulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidemic disease </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Post-Classic Period in Mesoamerica 900-1500 C.E.
  27. 27. Toltecs <ul><li>Arrived in central Mexico in the tenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Built a civilization based on the legacy of Teotihuacán. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributed innovations in the areas of politics and war. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Toltecs <ul><li>Toltec capital = Tula </li></ul><ul><li>Center of the first conquest state in the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual kings ruled the state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement probably caused the internal struggle that undermined the Toltec state around 1000 C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toltecs destroyed by invaders around 1156 C.E. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Toltec Statues
  30. 30. Toltec Shield
  31. 31. Toltec Ruins
  32. 32. Aztecs <ul><li>Originally a northern people with a clan-based social organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Migrated to Lake Texcoco area </li></ul><ul><li>Established cities of Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco around 1325 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a monarchical system of government </li></ul>
  33. 33. Aztec Kings <ul><li>Increased wealth and power by means of territorial conquest. As Empire grew in size, commoners lost ability to influence political decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Result was increase in inequalities in wealth </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Agricultural Production <ul><li>Increased in the capital area by undertaking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reclamation projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructing irrigated fields </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food tribute met nearly ¼ of capital’s food requirements </li></ul>
  35. 35. Trade <ul><li>Merchants who were distinct from and subordinate to the political elite controlled long-distance trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology of trade: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No wheeled vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No draft animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No money used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goods carried by human porters and exchanged through barter. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Aztec Worship <ul><li>Large number of gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important = Huitzilopochtli, the sun god </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Huitzilopochtli required a diet of human hearts that were supplied by sacrificing thousands of people every year. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Aztec Sacrifice
  38. 38. Northern Peoples
  39. 39. Southwestern Desert Cultures <ul><li>Irrigation-based agriculture was introduced to Arizona from Mexico around 300 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Hohokam constructed extensive irrigation works in the Salt and Gila valleys around 1000 C.E. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Anasazi <ul><li>Developed a maize, rice, and bean economy </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed underground buildings (kivas) in Arizona/New Mexico/Colorado/Utah region around 450-750 C.E. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Chaco Canyon <ul><li>Population of about 15,000. </li></ul><ul><li>People engaged in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigated agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exerted political or religious dominance over a large region. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Anasazi Decline <ul><li>Twelfth or thirteenth centuries as a result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overpopulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Anasazi Ruins
  44. 44. Mound Builders of the Mississippi
  45. 45. Mound Builders: The Mississippian Culture <ul><li>Chiefs served as priests and managed secular affairs such as long-distance trade </li></ul><ul><li>People built large mounds both as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burial sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as platforms upon which temples and residences of the society’s elite were constructed. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Mississippian Center <ul><li>Center was Cahokia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population of about 30,000 around 1200 C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cahokia was abandoned around 1250 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps because of climate changes and population pressure </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Reconstruction of Cahokia
  48. 48. Andean Civilizations 600-1500 C.E.
  49. 49. Cultural Response to Environmental Challenge <ul><li>Human inhabitants had to respond to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-altitude Andes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry coastal plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical headwaters of the Amazon </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Labor Organization <ul><li>Basic unit of Andean labor = clan or ayllu </li></ul><ul><li>Clans held land collectively </li></ul><ul><li>Obligated to assist each other in production and to supply goods and labor to the clan chief. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Organization <ul><li>Territorial states organized after 1000 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the institution of the mit’a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required each allyu to provide a set number of workers each year to provide labor for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious establishments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Royal court </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aristocracy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Division of Labor <ul><li>Work was divided along gender lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Men were responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women were responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Andean Environment <ul><li>Four major ecological zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher elevations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazonian region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each region produced different goods and exchanged through network of trade routes. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Moche <ul><li>Culture emerged in the north coastal region of Peru in about 200 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Used mit’a labor system to construct irrigated agriculture system. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quinoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manioc </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Map of Moche Region
  56. 56. Society <ul><li>Stratified and theocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth and power were concentrated in the hands of an elite of priests and military leaders </li></ul>
  57. 57. Elite vs. Commoners <ul><li>Elite: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived atop large platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decorated themselves with fancy clothes, jewelry, and tall headdresses. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commoners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultivated fields of elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied mit’a labor to the elite </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Moche Artisans <ul><li>Skilled in production of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portrait vases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallurgy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gold and silver used for decorative purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Copper and copper alloy used for farm tools and weapons. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Moche Art
  60. 60. Decline and Fall <ul><li>Attributed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>series of natural disasters in the sixth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure from warlike Wari people in the eighth century </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Tiwanaku <ul><li>Located in Bolivia. </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced increased agricultural productivity and urbanization after 200 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated potatoes and grains on raised fields reclaimed from marshland. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Urban Construction <ul><li>Urban areas included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large terraced pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walled enclosures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large stones quarried, moved and laid by many workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used simple technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had copper alloy tools </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Tiwanaku
  64. 64. Tiwanaku Society <ul><li>Highly stratified </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by hereditary elite </li></ul><ul><li>Included specialized artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Tiwanaku was a ceremonial and political center for a large regional population </li></ul>
  65. 65. Statue by Artisans
  66. 66. Wari <ul><li>Located near city of Ayucuho, Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Had contact with Tiwanaku, but separate culture </li></ul><ul><li>City built without central planning, different techniques, and very small compared to Tiwanaku </li></ul>
  67. 67. Wari Artwork
  68. 68. Tiwanaku and Wari <ul><li>Both civilizations declined to insignificance by 1000 C.E. </li></ul>
  69. 69. The Inca
  70. 70. Origins <ul><li>Small chiefdom in Cuzco until leaders consolidated political authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Began program of military expansion in the 1430s. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1525, constructed a huge empire. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Key to Inca Wealth <ul><li>Ability to develop a </li></ul><ul><li>strong professional military </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Use it to broaden and expand traditional exchange system that linked regions of Andes together. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Inca Map
  73. 73. Labor System <ul><li>Used mit’a labor system to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Man armies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build capital city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain religious institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for old, weak, and ill </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Local Rulers <ul><li>Inca left local rulers in place </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled them by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military garrisons located close by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took heirs to Cuzco as hostages </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Central Government <ul><li>Inca created an imperial bureaucracy led by a king. </li></ul><ul><li>Each king was required to prove himself by conquering new territory. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Capital City <ul><li>Capital = Cuzco </li></ul><ul><li>Laid out in shape of a puma </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings constructed of stone without mortar </li></ul><ul><li>Palaces and temples decorated with scenes of rituals, feasts, and sacrifices. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Cultural Contributions <ul><li>Astronomical observation </li></ul><ul><li>Weaving </li></ul><ul><li>Copper and bronze metallurgy </li></ul><ul><li>Gold and silver working </li></ul><ul><li>Did not introduce new technology, but made existing technology more efficient to increase profits throughout region. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Inca Artwork
  79. 79. Civil War <ul><li>Incan domination increased wealth, but reduced levels of local autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Elite fell into civil war in 1525. </li></ul><ul><li>Inca control over vast territories was weakened. </li></ul>
  80. 80. Cuzco
  81. 81. Cuzco Which way to Machu Pichu?
  82. 82. Machu Pichu Now how do we get down from here?