Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted, WorldFish "The Role of Fish for Nutrition and Health"


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Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted, WorldFish

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Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted, WorldFish "The Role of Fish for Nutrition and Health"

  1. 1. The Role of Fish for Nutrition and Health: Bangladesh as a case study Shakuntala Haraksingh Thilsted Senior Nutrition Scientist, WorldFish
  2. 2. Fish and Bangladesh - Rich water and fisheries resources: inland, coastal and marine - Important for food, livelihood and income, especially of the rural poor - Low intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals, fat and essential fatty acids, animal protein - Population groups relying on fish as a common food suffer disproportionately from malnutrition - Fish in food-based approaches: Applicable to many population groups in other low-income African and Asian countries
  3. 3. Consumption of Nutrient-rich Foods in Bangladesh Frequency of consumption of nutrient-rich foods in the preceding 14 days (% of households) (BBS Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Fish Leafy vegetable Fruit Egg Milk Meat %ofhouseholds 7-14 days consumption 0-6 days consumption
  4. 4. Small Fish Species Improve Dietary Diversity • Common food eaten with rice • Adds flavour and taste to the meal • Improves dietary diversity • Cooked with vegetables, oil and spices, further improves dietary diversity, adding nutrients and health-promoting substances • Processed (dried), stored - prolonging duration of consumption, reach • Irreplaceable animal-source food • Rich source of multiple nutrients • Animal protein • Essential fats • Essential micronutrients: minerals and vitamins • Enhances mineral bioavailability from foods in the meal
  5. 5. Decrease in Capture Fisheries Dramatic Success in Aquaculture • Capture Fisheries: - total no. of all species consumed: 100 per year - small fish species: 85 % of total amount consumed - frequent harvesting of small amounts of fish for consumption • Aquaculture: - large fish species - very few species (carps, tilapia, pangasius - harvesting at one time for sale
  6. 6. Nutrient Content of Small and Large Fish Species Nutrient content of small indigenous and cultured fish species in Bangladesh VITAMIN A CALCIUM IRON ZINC FISH SPECIES (RAE/100 g raw, edible parts) (mg/100 g raw, edible parts) (mg/100 g raw, edible parts) (mg/100 g raw, edible parts) Small indigenous fish species Chanda (Parambassis baculis) - 1,153 2.1 2.6 Darkina (Esomus danricus) 880 775 12.0 4.0 Mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) 2,680 776 5.7 3.2 Puti (Puntius sophore) 60 1,042 3.3 3.8 Cultured fish species Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) - 8.6 0.7 0.6 Silver carp (Hypophthamichthys molitrix) < 30 36 4.4 1.4 Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) < 30 95 1.1 1.2 Perceptions of Health Benefits of Specific Small Fish Species (by Bangladeshi Women): good for/protect eyes; full of vitamins; good for pregnancy and lactation; gives strength; builds up blood
  7. 7. Innovative Production Technologies for Small Fish • Sustainable management of wetlands with enhanced stocking of nutrient-rich small fish • Small-scale homestead pond polyculture of carps and nutrient-rich small fish (mola) - small fish for household intake - carps for household income • Integration of: - Production of nutrient-rich vegetables in homestead and on pond dykes - Behaviour change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions - Gender equity
  8. 8. Increased Fish Production Alone is Insufficient • Behaviour Change Communication: for increased fish consumption, especially at the start of complementary feeding • Improvement in Post-harvest Processes: processing (drying), storage, marketing, food safety, cooking methods • Reduction of Spoilage and Wastage • Increased Use of Small Marine Fish for Human Consumption present use: fish meal and fish oil
  9. 9. Nutrient composition of fish-based complementary food (per 100 g dry product) 15% dried darkina fish, 30% orange sweet potato flour, 10% soybean oil, 45% rice flour Energy Protein Fat Iron Zinc Calcium Vit A 420 kcal 12 g 13 g 15 mg 4.5 mg 895 mg 836 RAE
  10. 10. Fish and Fish Products in 1,000 Days and Beyond • Fish chutney for women and adolescent girls: dried small fish, onion, garlic, chili and oil – community-based income generation for women • Business Analysis and Plan: e.g. source and price of ingredients; manufacturing, shelf life, marketing, demand
  11. 11. Moving Forward • Data Needs – fish species nutrient composition, intra- household consumption, enhancing factor of fish on bioavailability • Scaling Out of Production Systems with small fish species • Focus on Food Systems and Diet – not single food / nutrient • Partnership and Collaboration