<ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>also known as aquaculture </li></ul><ul><li>cultivation of aquatic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>under controlled conditions </li></ul><ul><li>~ ponds, net cages in lakes or oceans, </li></ul><ul><li>rectangle raceway tanks, round </li></ul><ul><li>tanks, earthen tanks lined </li></ul><ul><li>with plastics etc. </li></ul>
Fish Farming principal form of aquaculture raising fish commercially in tanks enclosures, usually for food. salmon, catfish, tilapia, cod, carp, trout
Mariculture cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products carry out in an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater examples:marine fish, prawns, or oysters non food products:fish meal, nutrient agar,cultured pearls, and cosmetics.
Shrimp Farming aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp for human consumption Brazil is the largest producer of farmed shrimp Thailand is the largest exporting nation
<ul><li>aquaculture's contribution to global , increasing from 3.9 % of total production by weight in 1970 to 27.3 % in 2000. the sector has increased at an average compounded rate of 9.2 % per year since 1970, compared with only 1.4 % (capture fisheries),2.8 % (terrestrial farmed meat production systems). </li></ul>
<ul><li>As fishing has become more industrialised, and wild fish stocks increasingly depleted, aquaculture production has grown rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries </li></ul>
Generally fisheries sector can be categorized in three aspects: ~ source of foreign exchange in trades ~ source of affordable and reliable animal protein and income provision ~ new source of income for country
Few steps are taken by government to promote aquafarming : ~ Projek Berimpak Besar (HIP) ~ Zon Industri Akuakultur (ZIA) Peringkat Kebangsaan ~ Sungai Como di Tasik Kenyir
There are few modern technologies used in aquaculture which are eco-friendly: ~ Recirculation Aquaculture Systems (RAS) ~ Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture ( Aquaponic ).
In assessing future challenges for the fisheries sector, FAO (1999c) has identified a number of key issues that span the entire sector, and which are of primary policy importance. These challenges include:
~ maintaining the contribution made by fisheries and aquaculture ~ strengthening the base for fisheries management and aquaculture development ~ improving governance and more effective effective conflict resolution ~ facilitating greater transparency in fisheries sector decision making at all levels
~ improving access to, and the dissemination of, good quality and timely information in the most appropriate formats ~ reducing by-catch and discards ~ promoting cooperation in fish trade ~ integrating coastal area planning and management more effectively