Experience at EIAR on Dairy Research and Development in Ethiopia


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Presentation by Dr. Getenet Assefa at the National dairy forum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-24 November 2010.

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Experience at EIAR on Dairy Research and Development in Ethiopia

  1. 1. Experience at EIAR on Dairy Research and Development in Ethiopia National dairy forum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 23-24 November 2010
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>The dairy research has been started in EIAR (ex-IAR) since the early 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>The program was initiated as part of the over all cattle improvement program in terms of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth, milk yield drought power resistance to disease and other important production and reproduction merits. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>This was because indigenous cattle breeds </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low in milk productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- National average : 234 liters/lactation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- 224 – 559 kgs (Arsi, Borena, Horro) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low birth weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low weaning weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediate and high demand of livestock products like milk </li></ul>
  4. 4. Components – in the Dairy Research <ul><li>The major research approaches to improve dairy production were: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Crossbreeding of indigenous cattle and European dairy breeds </li></ul><ul><li>The crossbreds were evaluated for </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate, milk yield, drought power, reproductive efficiency, disease resistance under different environmental conditions </li></ul>Indigenous European Environment Blood levels <ul><li>Boran </li></ul><ul><li>Barca </li></ul><ul><li>Horro </li></ul><ul><li>Friesian </li></ul><ul><li>Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>Simmental </li></ul><ul><li>Holetta </li></ul><ul><li>Bako </li></ul><ul><li>Adamitulu </li></ul><ul><li>Werer </li></ul><ul><li>F1 </li></ul><ul><li>F2 </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The Friesian crosses performed relatively better than either the Jersey or Simmental crosses in all the environments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F1 - BF Crossbreds : </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 - 2500 kg milk/ lactation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research on camel milk production has been also assed, but the scope and coverage is not big. Currently, research on camel diseases, camel milk quality and processing is going on </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Forage crops suitable for different agro-ecologies and production strategies are identified </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 registered forage species/varieties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 25 other recommended species </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various agronomic, conservation and utilization technologies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended practice in the Improvement and utilization of crop residues and agro-industrial by products are established </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations are going on in the different agro-ecologies and production systems </li></ul>Dairy animal feeds and feeding
  7. 8. <ul><li>Most of the studies were in the central highlands </li></ul><ul><li>General health problems of dairy cows, heifers and calves and seasonal distribution identified, Prevention and controlling strategies developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Major reproductive abnormalities of dairy animals were studied prevention methods recommended </li></ul><ul><li>Herbal medicine study was undertaken to control mastitis and skin diseases of dairy calves. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers and development workers are trained and sensitized in different parts of the country </li></ul>Animal Health
  8. 9. <ul><li>General health problems of dairy cattle in the central highlands </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enteritis and pneumonia of calves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mastitis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LSD (Lumpy skin disease) and FMD are sometimes epidemic </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax, Blackleg, Pasteurlosis are mostly controlled through periodical vaccination </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Though not exhaustive </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional milk processing techniques are evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable techniques of milk processing and preservatives has been established and demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical qualities and hygienic conditions of milk during production, processing and handling in different parts of Ethiopia studied </li></ul><ul><li>Value addition in the dairy chain: identification of milk quality Constraints and Improvement Interventions </li></ul>Dairy processing and value addition
  10. 11. Animal power <ul><li>Evaluation on the use of male indigenous and crossbred cattle for draft power </li></ul><ul><li>Use of crossbred cows as dual purpose animals: as dairy and traction </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of different, improved power farm implements and harness used in animal traction </li></ul>
  11. 12. Animal biotechnology <ul><li>Attempts were made to use biotechnology tools in improving efficiency of animal production and productivity. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive biotechnology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal feed improvement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently encouraging results has been observed </li></ul><ul><li>National biotechnology lab is established at Holetta, where one of the components is Animal biotechnology </li></ul>
  12. 13. Dairy Technologies Demonstration <ul><li>Dairy cattle with different technology packages has been demonstrated in many places </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Improved dairy cattle production has been demonstrated in many places specially in the central highlands </li></ul><ul><li>Through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Provision of pregnant crossbred heifers/cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Bull and AI services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Dual purpose CB cows (Dairy/ traction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Including the major production packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forages, feeding, health, breeding, processing etc </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Other technologies for livestock including local breeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forage development , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding systems, MNB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop residue improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal health, etc.. are widely demonstrated </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. An Ethiopian man with 11 wives and 77 children is urging people not to follow his example Major Challenges in Dairy Res. & Dev. 17 kg Current per capita milk and milk product consumption 26 kg - African average 62.5 kg FAO Recomm. > 100 kg European standard ? How when
  16. 17. Major Challenges … <ul><li>Socio-economic constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence production and complex production system </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock policy, breeding, pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Grazing management systems, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and services </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing – standards, information </li></ul><ul><li>Budgetary (Insufficient services such as AI, drugs etc) </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>2. Technical constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate capacity in research and extension to promote proven technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical scarcity of crossbred animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very poor AI systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low supply of concentrate feeds and forage seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-market oriented subsistence animal production systems highly limited adoption of highly producing crossbred dairy animals </li></ul></ul>Major Challenges …
  18. 19. <ul><li>Feed resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing lands shrinking & productivity decreased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate amount & lower quality of crop residues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower adoption rate of cultivated forage crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very limited supply and high price of agro-industrial by products (Not well developed ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the feed available is used for maintenance with only an estimated of 15% being available for production of power, milk and meat. </li></ul></ul>Major Challenges …
  19. 20. <ul><li>Animal health problems </li></ul><ul><li>Animal disease is a major constraint limiting production specially for CB animals </li></ul><ul><li>There are epidemics of infectious diseases with high rates of mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which could be controlled by vaccination; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are also parasitic, and vector born diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Restricting the introduction of more productive animals and technologies </li></ul>Major Challenges …
  20. 21. Opportunities <ul><li>High local and international market demand for livestock and livestock products </li></ul><ul><li>Conducive investment and development policies </li></ul><ul><li>The country’s livestock biodiversity and land resource base retain the capacity for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of feed quantity and quality potential from pasture, crop residues and forage seed production </li></ul><ul><li>Successful control and eradication of rinderpest is an indication of the proper designing and implementation potential of the country in disease prevention </li></ul>
  21. 22. Attentions Needed in the Development of Dairy in Ethiopia <ul><li>The sector should be given support by the government through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment, Allocation of adequate budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development and implementation of different livestock policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximize utilization of our potential resources, in terms of breed, feed and indigenous knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage establishment and expansion of medium to large scale dairy farms and processing industries </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing sustainable and strong marketing systems starting from the grass roots </li></ul>
  22. 23. Thank You