Chapter 18        Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration                                                                ...
Tamerlanes empire about 1405 C.E.                                                                                         ...
Nomadic Economy and Society   Rainfall in central Asia too little to support large-scale    agriculture   Grazing animal...
Nomads in Turkmenistan                                                                                             4     C...
Nomadic Economy   Trade links between nomadic and sedentary    peoples   Nomads engage in long-distance travel       Ca...
Nomadic Society   Governance basically clan-based   Charismatic individuals become nobles, occasionally    assert author...
Nomadic Religion   Shamans center of pagan worship   Appeal of Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Islam,    Manichaeism f...
Military Organization   Large confederations under a khan   Authority extended through tribal elders   Exceptionally st...
Turkish empires and their neighborsabout 1210 C.E                                                                         ...
Saljuq Turks and the Abbasid Empire   8-10th centuries Turkish peoples on border of    Abbasid empire       Service in A...
Saljuq Turks and the Byzantine Empire   1071 Saljuqs defeat Byzantine army, take    emperor captive   Large-scale invasi...
Ghaznavid Turks and the Sultanate ofDelhi   Mahmud of Ghazni, Afghanistan, invades    northern India   At first for plun...
Chinggis Khan (1167-1227) and theMaking of the Mongol Empire   Temüjin, b. 1167   Father prominent warrior, poisoned c. ...
Mongol Political Organization   Broke up tribal organization   Formed military units from men of different tribes   Pro...
Mongol Arms   Mongol population only 1 million (less than 1%    of Chinese population)       Army c. 100-125,000   Stre...
Mongol Conquests   Conquest of China by 1220   Conquest of Afghanistan, Persia       emissaries murdered, following yea...
The Mongol Empires after Chinggis Khan                                                                                    ...
Khubilai Khan (r. 1264-1294)   Grandson of Chinggis Khan   Rule of China   Ruthless warrior, but religiously tolerant  ...
The Golden Horde   Conquest of Russia, 1237-1241       Established tributary relationship to 15th century       Rule ov...
The Ilkhanate of Persia   Abbasid empire toppled   Baghdad sacked, 1258       200,000 massacred   Expansion into Syria...
Mongol Rule in Persia   Nomadic conquerors had to learn to rule sedentary    societies       Inexperienced, Lost control...
Mongol Rule in China   Strove to maintain strict separation from Chinese       Intermarriage forbidden       Chinese fo...
The Mongols and Buddhism   Shamanism remains popular   Lamaist school of Buddhism (Tibet) gains    strength among Mongol...
The Mongols and Western Integration   Experience with long-distance trade       Protection of traveling merchants      ...
Decline of the Mongol Empire in Persia   Overspending, poor tax returns from overburdened    peasantry   Ilkhan attempts...
Decline of the Yuan Dynasty in China   Mongols spend bullion that supported paper currency   Public loses confidence in ...
Surviving Mongol Khanates   Khanate of Chaghatai in central Asia       Continued threat to China   Golden Horde in Cauc...
Tamerlane the Conquerer (c. 1336-1405)   Turkish conqueror Timur       Timur the Lame: Tamerlane   United Turkish nomad...
Tamerlane’s Heirs   Poor organization of governing structure   Power struggles divide empire into four   Yet heavily in...
The Ottoman Empire   Osman, charismatic leader who dominates part of    Anatolia   Declares independence from Saljuq sul...
Ottoman Conquests   1350s conquests in the Balkans   Local support for Ottoman invasion       Peasants unhappy with fra...
The Capture of Constantinople, 1453   Sultan Mehmed II (“Mehmed the Conqueror”)   Renamed city Istanbul, capital of Otto...
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  1. 1. Chapter 18 Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Tamerlanes empire about 1405 C.E. 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Nomadic Economy and Society Rainfall in central Asia too little to support large-scale agriculture Grazing animals thrive, central Asians turn to animal herding  Food  Clothing  Shelter (yurts) Migratory patterns to follow pastureland Small-scale farming, rudimentary artisanry 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Nomads in Turkmenistan 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Nomadic Economy Trade links between nomadic and sedentary peoples Nomads engage in long-distance travel  Caravan routes 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Nomadic Society Governance basically clan-based Charismatic individuals become nobles, occasionally assert authority Unusually fluid status for nobility  Hereditary, but could be lost through incompetence  Advancement for meritorious non-nobles 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Nomadic Religion Shamans center of pagan worship Appeal of Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Islam, Manichaeism from 6th century CE Turkish script developed, partially to record religious teachings Conversion to Islam in 10th century due to Abbasid influence 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Military Organization Large confederations under a khan Authority extended through tribal elders Exceptionally strong cavalries  Mobility  Speed 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Turkish empires and their neighborsabout 1210 C.E 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Saljuq Turks and the Abbasid Empire 8-10th centuries Turkish peoples on border of Abbasid empire  Service in Abbasid armies Eventually came to dominate Abbasid caliphs 1055 Saljuq leader named Sultan, caliphs remain figureheads 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Saljuq Turks and the Byzantine Empire 1071 Saljuqs defeat Byzantine army, take emperor captive Large-scale invasion of Anatolia Many conversions to Islam Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople 1453 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Ghaznavid Turks and the Sultanate ofDelhi Mahmud of Ghazni, Afghanistan, invades northern India At first for plunder, later to rule Northern India completely dominated by 13th century Persecution of Buddhists, Hindus 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Chinggis Khan (1167-1227) and theMaking of the Mongol Empire Temüjin, b. 1167 Father prominent warrior, poisoned c. 1177, forced into poverty Mastered steppe diplomacy, elimination of enemies Brought all Mongol tribes into one confederation 1206 proclaimed Chinggis Khan: “Universal Ruler” 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Mongol Political Organization Broke up tribal organization Formed military units from men of different tribes Promoted officials on basis of merit and loyalty Established distinctly non-nomadic capital at Karakorum 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Mongol Arms Mongol population only 1 million (less than 1% of Chinese population)  Army c. 100-125,000 Strengths:  Cavalry  Short bows  Rewarded enemies who surrender, cruel to enemies who fight 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Mongol Conquests Conquest of China by 1220 Conquest of Afghanistan, Persia  emissaries murdered, following year Chinggis Khan destroys ruler Ravaged lands to prevent future rebellions  Large-scale, long-term devastation 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. The Mongol Empires after Chinggis Khan 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Khubilai Khan (r. 1264-1294) Grandson of Chinggis Khan Rule of China Ruthless warrior, but religiously tolerant  Hosted Marco Polo Established Yuan dynasty (to 1368) Unsuccessful forays into Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma, Java Two attempted invasions of Japan (1274, 1281) turned back by typhoons (kamikaze: “divine winds”) 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. The Golden Horde Conquest of Russia, 1237-1241  Established tributary relationship to 15th century  Rule over Crimea to late 18th century Raids into Poland, Hungary, Germany 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. The Ilkhanate of Persia Abbasid empire toppled Baghdad sacked, 1258  200,000 massacred Expansion into Syria checked by Egyptian forces 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Mongol Rule in Persia Nomadic conquerors had to learn to rule sedentary societies  Inexperienced, Lost control of most lands within a century Persia: dependence on existing administration to deliver tax revenues  Left matters of governance to bureaucracy Eventually assimilated into Islamic lifestyle 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Mongol Rule in China Strove to maintain strict separation from Chinese  Intermarriage forbidden  Chinese forbidden to study Mongol language Imported administrators from other areas (esp. Arabs, Persians) Yet tolerated religious freedoms 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. The Mongols and Buddhism Shamanism remains popular Lamaist school of Buddhism (Tibet) gains strength among Mongols  Large element of magic, similar to shamanism  Ingratiating attitude to Mongols: khans as incarnations of Buddha 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. The Mongols and Western Integration Experience with long-distance trade  Protection of traveling merchants  Volume of trade across central Asia increases Diplomatic missions protected Missionary activity increases Mongol resettlement policies 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Decline of the Mongol Empire in Persia Overspending, poor tax returns from overburdened peasantry Ilkhan attempts to replace precious metal currency with paper in 1290s  Failure, forced to rescind Factional fighting Last Ilkhan dies without heir in 1335, Mongol rule collapses 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Decline of the Yuan Dynasty in China Mongols spend bullion that supported paper currency Public loses confidence in paper money, prices rise From 1320s, major power struggles Bubonic plague spreads 1330-1340s 1368 Mongols flee peasant rebellion 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Surviving Mongol Khanates Khanate of Chaghatai in central Asia  Continued threat to China Golden Horde in Caucasus and steppes to mid-16th century  Continued threat to Russia 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Tamerlane the Conquerer (c. 1336-1405) Turkish conqueror Timur  Timur the Lame: Tamerlane United Turkish nomads in Khanate of Chaghatai Major military campaigns  Built capital in Samarkand 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Tamerlane’s Heirs Poor organization of governing structure Power struggles divide empire into four Yet heavily influenced several empires:  Mughal  Safavid  Ottoman 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. The Ottoman Empire Osman, charismatic leader who dominates part of Anatolia Declares independence from Saljuq sultan, 1299 Attacks Byzantine empire  Followers known as Osmanlis (Ottomans) 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Ottoman Conquests 1350s conquests in the Balkans Local support for Ottoman invasion  Peasants unhappy with fragmented, ineffective Byzantine rule Tamerlane defeats Ottoman forces in 1402, but Ottomans recover by 1440s 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. The Capture of Constantinople, 1453 Sultan Mehmed II (“Mehmed the Conqueror”) Renamed city Istanbul, capital of Ottoman empire 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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