Classical india keynote

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  • Classical india keynote

    1. 1. Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    2. 2. Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    3. 3. The Mauryan and Gupta empires321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. 2 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    4. 4. Features of Classical India... Not as unified as Persia and China  regional kingdoms more the norm  however, cultural traditions did serve as a unifying source. Several popular religions that will shape India for centuries  Hinduism  Buddhism (movement to Asia) well-defined social structure  people knew their position 3 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    5. 5. India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 BCE Persian Emperor Darius conquers north- west India Introduces Persian ruling pattern 327 Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian Empire in India Troops mutiny, departs after 2 years  Political power vacuum 4 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    6. 6. Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander Overthrew Magadha rulers Expanded kingdom to create 1st unified Indian empire  Mauryan Dynasty 5 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    7. 7. Chandragupta’s Government Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraft Foreign policies, economics Domestic policies  Network of spies Like Persia and China built a bureaucratic administrative system 6 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    8. 8. Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan Empire, r. 268-232 BCE Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south Integrated Indian society (imperial edicts) Tightly organized bureaucracy Encouraged trade and built irrigation networks 7 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    9. 9. Decline of the Mauryan Empire Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries Regions begin to abandon Mauryan Empire  Disappears by 185 BCE 8 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    10. 10. Regional Kingdoms: Bactria andKush Northwestern India Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s campaigns India does NOT fall into chaos: kingdoms keep order Maintained silk road trade network 9 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    11. 11. The Gupta Dynasty Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), c. 320 CE Slightly smaller than Mauryan Empire Highly decentralized leadership (let local regional leaders rule) Stable Foundations for studies in natural sciences and mathematics (plastic surgery, earth is round, pi, calendar, zero, Arabic numerals) 10 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    12. 12. Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, 5th c. CE EXPENSIVE to defend Gupta Dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal Empire founded in 16th c. 11 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    13. 13. Economy: Towns and Manufacturing Manufactured goods in big demand Developed in dense network of small workshops Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India 12 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    14. 14. Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads Merchants deal with counterparts in nearby empires Cotton, pepper, gems main exports of India. 13 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    15. 15. Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expands  Spring/winter winds blow from south-west, fall/winter winds blow from north-west Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean 14 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    16. 16. Society: Gender Relations Patriarchy entrenched Child marriage common (8 year old girls married to men in 20s) Women encouraged to remain in private sphere 15 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    17. 17. Social Order  Caste system from Aryan times  Brahmins (priests)  Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)  Vaishyas (Peasants, merchants)  Shudras (serfs) 16 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    18. 18. Castes and Guilds Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jatis formed: guilds that acted as sub-castes Enforced social order  “outcastes” forced into low-status employment 17 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    19. 19. Wealth and the Social Order Upward social mobility possible for Vaishyas, Shudras Wealth challenges varna for status 18 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    20. 20. Religions of Salvation in ClassicalIndia Social change generated resentment of caste privilege  e.g. Brahmins free from taxation 6th-5th c. BCE new religions and philosophies challenge status quo Charvakas: atheists Jainists, Buddhists 19 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    21. 21. Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 BCE Abandoned privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes 7th c. movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings 20 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    22. 22. Ahimsa Principle of extreme non-violence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Ghandi, Martin Luther King Jr.) 21 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    23. 23. Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups But asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement 22 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    24. 24. Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, c. 563-483 BCE Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk Intense meditation, extreme asceticism 49 days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title Buddha: “the enlightened one” 23 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    25. 25. The Buddha and his Followers Begins teaching new doctrine c. 528 BCE Followers owned only robes, food bowls Life of wandering, begging, meditation Establishment of monastic communities 24 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    26. 26. Buddha and his Disciples 25 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    27. 27. Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truths  all life is suffering  there is an end to suffering  removing desire removes suffering  this may be done through the eight-fold path  (right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration) 26 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    28. 28. Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on Brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit Monasteries became important institutions in Indian society. 27 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    29. 29. A Buddhist Monastery 28 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    30. 30. Changes in Buddhist thought 3rd c. BCE – 1st c. CE  Buddha considered divine  Institution of Boddhisatvas (“saints”)  Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity 29 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    31. 31. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (“greater vehicle”), newer development  India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (“lesser vehicle,” also Theravada), earlier version  Ceylon, Burma, Thailand 30 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    32. 32. Nalanda Buddhist Monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty Helped spread Indian thought  E.g. mathematical number zero 31 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    33. 33. Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions  Mahabharata  Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations 32 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    34. 34. The Bhagavad Gita “Song of the Lord” Centuries of revisions, final form c. 400 CE Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war 33 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    35. 35. Hindu Ethics Emphasis on meeting class obligations (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha) 34 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
    36. 36. Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support 35 Copyright © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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