Australia the Colony• The colony of Australia began with the establishment of Port Jackson, a settlement in New South Wales on January 26, 1788. The History of Australia
Founding of Port Jackson The History of Australia
Prison Colonies• 1787 – British ships called the “First Fleet” left England with convicts to establish a prison colony at Port Jackson – convicts settled in 1788.
Convicts Take Over Australia• The British experienced overcrowding in their prison system and sought to solve the problem by sentencing their prisoners to “transportation” -- Australia.• Here they founded a system of labor in which people, whatever their crime, were employed according to their skills.• From 1810, convicts were seen as a source of labor to advance and develop the British colony.• Convict labor was used to develop the public facilities of the colonies - roads, bridges, courthouses, and hospitals. Convicts also worked for free settlers and small land holders.
Port Arthur• Port Arthur was named after Van Diemens Land lieutenant governor George Arthur. The settlement started as a timber station in 1830, but it is best known for being a penal colony.• From 1833, until the 1850s, it was the destination for the hardest of convicted British and Irish criminals, those who were secondary offenders having re- offended after their arrival in Australia. Rebellious personalities from other convict stations were also sent here.• In addition, Port Arthur had some of the strictest security measures of the British penal system.
Port Arthur Prison The History of Australia
Convict-built chapel at Port Arthur Prison The History of Australia
Port Arthur• Some tales suggest that prisoners committed murder (an offence punishable by death) just to escape the desolation of life at the camp.• The Island of the Dead was the destination for all who died inside the prison camps.
Island of the Dead
Aborigines vs. British• British settlers brought disease and guns to Australia.• The Aborigines had no immunity against European diseases.• In the 19th & 20th centuries, conflict worsened.• Surviving Aborigines were forced onto reservations in the interior.
Australia Grows Up!• 1851- Gold was discovered in New South Wales and Victoria, attracting a large population.• Australia’s population quadrupled!!• Independence became an issue.