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  1. 1. ORAL PRESENTATION AUSTRALIA Paula De Scheemaeker Elvira Fina
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION: AUSTRALIA Discovered for the Europeans in 1606. Independence: 1901. Capital: Canberra. Population: 22.000.000.
  3. 3. WILDLIFE
  4. 4. GENERAL INFORMATION 80% of endemic species. Principal cause: Isolation Different ecosystems Problems: Human activity Introduction of non-native species.
  5. 5. ANIMALS Marsupials like Kangaroo. Monotremes like platypus. Poisonous animals. Reptiles, specially lizards with 744 different ones. 4400 different fishes.
  6. 14. <ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul>
  7. 15. PREHISTORY: <ul><li>Since the immigration of the original inhabitants to the first European sighting in 1606. </li></ul><ul><li>Southern land has been inhabited between 42000 and 48000 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Period of massive environmental change. </li></ul><ul><li>First Australians were the ancestors of today's Aborigines  Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The Torres Strait Islanders  Melanesian. </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabited the Torres Strait Islands and Queensland. </li></ul>
  8. 16. CONTACT WITH ASIA: <ul><li>For at least the past century, Calcutta has traded with the natives of the north coast. </li></ul><ul><li>1603: Matteo Ricci  map of the known world at that time. </li></ul><ul><li>“ No one has been in this southern land, therefore we know nothing about it.” </li></ul>
  9. 17. EUROPEAN EXPLORATION: <ul><li>Earliest writings (discovery of Australia)  S. XVII </li></ul><ul><li>First European Sighting  1606  Dutch Janszoon. Janszoon sailed through the Gulf of Carpentaria, landing in the west coast of Cape York Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish expedition (Pedro Fernandez de Quiros) sighted the Australian mainland a few months earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Luis Vaez de Torres (belonging to the Quirós expedition) was the first to map “the Torres Strait”. </li></ul>
  10. 18. EUROPEAN EXPLORATION: <ul><li>Portuguese navigators discovered Australia even earlier, in the sixteenth century (S. XVI) </li></ul><ul><li>(Cristovao de Mendonça – Botany Bay – 1522) </li></ul><ul><li>1770: Endeavour’s issue  East coast of Australia. Landing on the continent for the first time - Botany Bay - 29 April. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook turned north  Possession Island in the Torres Strait, on 22 August. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern coast of Australia  Great Britain. Named New South Wales . </li></ul>
  11. 19. EUROPEAN EXPLORATION: <ul><li>Reports  interest in Australia  solution  problem of prison overcrowding in Britain (which had been compounded by the loss of the thirteen American colonies). </li></ul><ul><li>March 13, 1787  eleven ships left England to Botany Bay. </li></ul>
  12. 20. SETTLEMENT AND COLONIZATION: <ul><li>British Crown Colony of New South Wales  Port Jackson (Captain Arthur Phillip - 26 June 1788). </li></ul><ul><li>Tasmania  1803 – independent  1825. </li></ul><ul><li>The UK claimed as its own the western part of Australia (1829). </li></ul><ul><li>New South Wales: South Australia (1836), Victoria (1851) and Queensland (1859). The Northern Territory (1863) was founded as part of the province of South Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria and South Australia  &quot; free &quot;, meaning they were never penal colonies . </li></ul>
  13. 21. SETTLEMENT AND COLONIZATION: <ul><li>- Western Australia  &quot;free&quot;, but agreed after penal transportation due to the scarcity of jobs suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>- New Zealand --part of  New South Wales until 1840. The transportation of convicts was being gradually abolished (between 1840 and 1864). </li></ul><ul><li>- The Northern Territory was divided by latitude 20 °S in Northern Australia and Central Australia. </li></ul>
  14. 22. SETTLEMENT AND COLONIZATION: <ul><li>- Indigenous Population (350.000),  reduced in the 150 years following that establishment, mainly due to infectious diseases , with cultural disintegration and the forced resettlement suffered due to the advance of settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>- The separation of Aboriginal children and their families, may have a small contribution to the population decline of the native peoples. </li></ul>
  15. 23. SETTLEMENT AND COLONIZATION: <ul><li>- These interpretations of national history are a matter of discussion and are ranked by some as exaggerated and fabricated for political or ideological. - After approval of the referendum in 1967, the federal government gained the power to implement new policies and make laws with respect to Aborigines. </li></ul>
  16. 24. <ul><li>THANK YOU FOR </li></ul><ul><li>LISTENING! </li></ul>