Aborigines In Australia


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Aborigines In Australia

  1. 2. <ul><li>Native people of Australia who probably came from somewhere in Asia more than 40,000 years ago. In 2001 the population of aborigines and Torres Straits Islanders was 366,429, 1.9% of the Australian population as a whole. The aboriginal population at the time of European colonization in the late 18th cent. has been estimated to have numbered between 300,000 and 800,000. At that time, there were 500–600 distinct groups of aborigines speaking about 200 different languages or dialects (at least 50 of which are now extinct). Although culturally diverse, these groups were not political and economic entities and lacked class hierarchies and chiefs. They lived by hunting and gathering, and there was extensive intergroup trade throughout the continent. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Aborigines in Australia -In the past the word Aboriginal has been used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became capitalized and employed as the common name to refer to all indigenous Australians. At present the term refers only to those peoples who were traditionally hunter gatherers. It does not encompass those indigenous peoples from the Torres Strait who traditionally practiced agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Torres Strait Islanders -The Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, and speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not generally included under the designation &quot;Aboriginal Australians.&quot; This has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term &quot;Indigenous Australians&quot;. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islanders and Aboriginal heritage. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that often identify under names from local indigenous languages. These include: </li></ul><ul><li>* Koori (or Koorie) in New South Wales and Victoria (Victorian Aborigines) </li></ul><ul><li>* Murri in Queensland </li></ul><ul><li>* Noongar in southern Western Australia </li></ul><ul><li>* Yamatji in central Western Australia </li></ul><ul><li>* Wangkai in the Western Australian Goldfields </li></ul><ul><li>* Nunga in southern South Australia </li></ul><ul><li>* Anangu in northern South Australia, and neighboring parts of Western Australia and Northern Territory </li></ul><ul><li>* Yapa in western central Northern Territory </li></ul><ul><li>* Yolngu in eastern Arnhem Land (NT) </li></ul><ul><li>* Palawah (or Pallawah) in Tasmania. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Total population </li></ul><ul><li>517,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2.6% of Australia's population </li></ul><ul><li>Regions with significant populations </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Territory 32.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Western Australia 4.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Queensland 3.6% </li></ul><ul><li>New South Wales 2.5% </li></ul><ul><li>South Australia 2.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria 1.0% </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Australian Aboriginal culture is one of the world's longest surviving cultures, which dates back at least 50,000 years and there are many who think it could be closer to 150,000 years! All of Australia's Aborigines were semi-nomadic hunters and gatherers, with each clan having its own territory. Those communities living along the coast or rivers were expert fishermen. The territories or 'traditional lands' were defined by geographic boundaries such as rivers, lakes and mountains. All Australian Aborigines shared an intimate understanding of, and relationship with, the land. That relationship was the basis of their spiritual life and shaped the Aboriginal culture. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Land is fundamental to the well-being of all Aboriginal people. The 'dreamtime' stories explain how the land was created by the journeys of the spirit ancestors. Those creation stories describing the contact and features which the spiritual ancestors left on the land are integral to Aboriginal spirituality. Ancestor Spirits' came to Earth in human and other forms and the land, the plants and animals were given their form as we know them today. </li></ul><ul><li>The expression 'Dreamtime' refers to the 'time before time', or 'the time of the creation of all things', while 'Dreaming' is often used to refer to an individual's or group's set of beliefs or spirituality. For example, an Indigenous Australian might talk about their Kangaroo Dreaming, Snake Dreaming, or Honey Ant Dreaming, or any combination of Dreamings pertinent to their 'land'. However, many Indigenous Aborigines also refer to the creation time as 'The Dreaming'. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>For Indigenous Australians, the past is still fervantly alive in the present moment and will remain so into the future. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms in to which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming', as the stories tell. The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person's 'Dreaming'. here were a great many different groups, each with their own individual culture, belief structure, and language. These cultures overlapped to a greater or lesser extent, and evolved over time. Major ancestral spirits include the Rainbow Serpent, Baiame, and Bunjil. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonization as well as contemporary art by Aboriginal Australians based on traditional culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a history which covers over 30,000 years, and represent a large range of native traditions and styles. These have been studied in recent decades and gained increased international recognition. Aboriginal Art covers a wide medium including painting on leaves, wood carving, rock carving, sculpture, and ceremonial clothing, as well as artistic embellishments found on weaponry and also tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Art is one of the key rituals of Aboriginal culture and was and still is, used to mark territory, record history, and tell stories about the dreamtime. Similar to how Christians have their own story of the creation of the Earth, the Dreamtime is how the Aboriginals believed the world was created. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Body Painting -Perhaps one of the earliest forms of Indigenous art, and one which is still very much alive, is body painting. For example, the Yolngu people of Arnhem Land cover their bodies in elaborate and exquisite decorations prior to ceremonies or traditional dances. The preparation can take many hours, and the finest artists will be sought after for this. The designs drawn on the body are traditional designs, often involving fine cross-hatching and lines of dots, which are owned by the clan of the person who is being decorated. </li></ul><ul><li>Body painting is thought to have been the inspiration for many of the designs now found in Bark Painting. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Rock Painting -Rock painting can be found in most parts of Australia, ranging from simple hand or boomerang stencils to elaborate X-ray pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, paints were often made from water, animal fats or spittle mixed with ochre and other rock pigments and sometimes had vegetable fibers added. Painting was then performed on people's bodies, rock walls or bark (particular that of the paperbark gum). Tools used included primitive brushes, sticks, fingers and even a technique of spraying the paint directly out of the mouth onto the medium resulting in an effect similar to modern spraypaint. Aboriginal Art can be made up of a series of dots, lines, or just the outline of a shape. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Rock Painting </li></ul><ul><li>There are a wide variety of styles of Aboriginal art. Three common types are </li></ul><ul><li>* The cross-hatch or X-ray art from the Arnhem Land and Kakadu regions of the Northern Territory, in which the skeletons and viscera of the animals and humans portrayed are drawn inside the outline, as if by cross section; </li></ul><ul><li>Dot-painting where intricate patterns, totems and/or stories are created using dots; and </li></ul><ul><li>* Stencil art, particularly using the motif of a hand print. </li></ul><ul><li>More simple designs of straight lines, circles and spirals, are also common, and in many cases are thought to be the origins of some forms of contemporary Aboriginal Art. </li></ul><ul><li>A particular type of Aboriginal painting, known as the Bradshaws, appears on caves in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. They are named after the European pastoralist, Joseph Bradshaw, who first reported them in 1891. To Aboriginal people of the region they are known as Gwion Gwion. Traditional Aboriginal art is composed of organic colours and materials, but modern artists often use synthetic paints when creating aboriginal styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Aboriginal art involves story telling, myths, rituals, sorcery and magic. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Bark paintings are paintings made by Australian Indigenous artists on pieces of flattened bark taken from trees such as the stringybark. The designs seen on authentic bark paintings are traditional designs that are owned by the artist, or his or her &quot;skin&quot;, or clan, and cannot be painted by other artists. While the designs themselves are ancient, the means of painting them on a piece of flattened bark is a relatively modern phenomenon, although there is some evidence that artists would paint designs on the bark walls and roofs of their shelters. </li></ul><ul><li>Bark paintings are now regarded as &quot;Fine Art&quot;, and the finest bark paintings command high prices accordingly on the international art markets. The very best artists are recognized annually in the National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Aerial desert &quot;country&quot; landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>F rom ancient times, Australian aboriginal culture also produced a genre of aerial landscape art, often titled simply &quot;country&quot;. It is a kind of maplike, bird's-eye view of the desert landscape, and it is often meant to tell a traditional Dreaming story. In the distant past, the common media for such artwork were rock, sand or body painting; but the tradition continues today in the form of paintings on canvas (see section Papunya Tula and &quot;Dot Painting&quot; below). </li></ul><ul><li>Rock Engravings </li></ul><ul><li>Engravings at Terrey Hills, near Sydney, NSW. The two kangaroos suggest this was used for an increase ceremony, whilst the well-endowed man may be Baiame. More details are in Sydney Rock Engravings. </li></ul><ul><li>Engravings at Terrey Hills, near Sydney, NSW. The two kangaroos suggest this was used for an increase ceremony, whilst the well-endowed man may be Baiame. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several different types of Rock art across Australia, the most famous of which is Murujuga in Western Australia, the Sydney Rock Engravings around Sydney in New South Wales, and the Panaramitee rock art in Central Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The rock art at Murujuga is said to be the world's largest collection of petroglyphs and includes images of extinct animals such as Thylacine. Activity prior to the last ice age until colonisation are recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sydney Rock Art has its own peculiar style, not found elsewhere in Australia, with beautiful carved animals, humans, and symbolism. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Rock Engravings </li></ul><ul><li>Engravings at Terrey Hills, near Sydney, NSW. The two kangaroos suggest this was used for an increase ceremony, whilst the well-endowed man may be Baiame. More details are in Sydney Rock Engravings. </li></ul><ul><li>Engravings at Terrey Hills, near Sydney, NSW. The two kangaroos suggest this was used for an increase ceremony, whilst the well-endowed man may be Baiame. More details are in Sydney Rock Engravings. </li></ul><ul><li>There are several different types of Rock art across Australia, the most famous of which is Murujuga in Western Australia, the Sydney Rock Engravings around Sydney in New South Wales, and the Panaramitee rock art in Central Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>The rock art at Murujuga is said to be the world's largest collection of petroglyphs and includes images of extinct animals such as Thylacine. Activity prior to the last ice age until colonisation are recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sydney Rock Art has its own peculiar style, not found elsewhere in Australia, with beautiful carved animals, humans, and symbolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Stone Arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Stone arrangements in Australia range from the 50m-diameter circles of Victoria, with 1m-high stones firmly embedded in the ground, to the smaller stone arrangements found throughout Australia, such as those near Yirrkala which depict accurate images of the praus used by Macassan Trepang fishermen. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Iconogaphy and Symbols-The imagery of the Aboriginal culture, as can be seen in many of the sacred sites, rock and cave paintings, used few colors as they were often made from what was available locally. Some colors were mined from ‘ochre pits’, being used for both painting and ceremonies, with ochre also traded between clans and at one time could only be collected by specific men within the clan. Other pigments were made from clay, wood ash or animal blood. There were variations in the symbolic representation of some rock art and paintings, depending on the tribe or region of Australia that you belong to, which is still evident today in the modern art work of Aboriginal artists. The dotted motifs of much of today's Aboriginal modern design work has become the trademark of the contemporary Aboriginal Art movement. Its iconic status developed from a culture stretching back into the history of an ancient land, evolving and weaving into desert dreamtime stories. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>The indigenous languages of mainland Australia and Tasmania have not been shown to be related to any languages outside Australia. In the late 18th century, there were anywhere between 350 and 750 distinct groupings and a similar number of languages and dialects. At the start of the 21st century, fewer than 200 indigenous Australian languages remain in use and all but about 20 of these are highly endangered. Linguists classify mainland Australian languages into two distinct groups, the Pama-Nyungan languages and the non-Pama Nyungan. The Pama-Nyungan languages comprise the majority, covering most of Australia, and are a family of related languages. In the north, stretching from the Western Kimberley to the Gulf of Carpentaria, are found a number of groups of languages which have not been shown to be related to the Pama-Nyungan family or to each other: these are known as the non-Pama-Nyungan languages. While it has sometimes proven difficult to work out familial relationships within the Pama-Nyungan language family many Australianist linguists feel there has been substantial success.Against this, some linguists, such as R. M. W. Dixon, suggest that the Pama-Nyungan group, and indeed the entire Australian linguistic area, is rather a sprachbund, or group of languages having very long and intimate contact, rather than a genetic linguistic phylum. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Given their long occupation of Australia, it has been suggested that Aboriginal languages form one specific sub-grouping. Certainly, similarities in the phoneme set of Aboriginal languages throughout the continent are suggestive of a common origin. A common feature of many Australian languages is that they display mother-in-law languages, special speech registers used only in the presence of certain close relatives. The position of Tasmanian languages is unknown, and it is also unknown whether they comprised one or more than one specific language family. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians; it incorporates a wide variety of distinctive traditional music styles practiced by Indigenous Australian people, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles both derivative of and fusion with European traditions as interpreted and performed by indigenous Australian artists. Music has formed an integral part of the social, cultural and ceremonial observances of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, down through the millennia of their individual and collective histories to the present day. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Bunggul </li></ul><ul><li>Bunggul is a style of music that came into being around the Mann River and is known for its intense lyrics, which are often stories of epic journeys and continue, or repeat, unaccompanied after the music has stopped. </li></ul><ul><li>Clan songs and song lines </li></ul><ul><li>A particular clan in Aboriginal culture may share songs, known as emeba (Groote Eylandt), fjatpangarri (Yirrkala), manikay (Arnhem Land) or other native terms. Songs are about clan or family history and are frequently updated to take into account popular films and music, controversies and social relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Songlines (&quot;Yiri&quot; in the Walpiri language) relate to Dreamtime, with oral lore and storytelling manifested in an intricate series of song cycles that identified landmarks and other items and tracking (hunting) mechanisms for navigation. These songs often described how the features of the land were created and named during the Dreamtime. By singing the songs in the appropriate order, indigenous Australians could navigate vast distances often traveling through the deserts of Australia's interior. They relate the holder or the keeper of the song (or Dreamtime story) with an inherent obligation and reciprocity with the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Aborigine playing bunggul </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Death Wail </li></ul><ul><li>A mourning lament recorded in a number of locations in central and northern Australia and among the Torres Strait Islanders. </li></ul><ul><li> Karma </li></ul><ul><li>Karma is a type of oral literature that tells a religious or historical story. </li></ul><ul><li>Didgeridoo </li></ul><ul><li>A didgeridoo is a type of musical instrument that, according to western musicological classification, falls into the category of aerophone. It consists of a long tube, without finger-holes, through which the player blows. It is sometimes fitted with a mouthpiece of beeswax. Didgeridoos are traditionally of eucalyptus, but are also made of contemporary materials such as PVC piping. In traditional situations it is played only by men, usually as an accompaniment to ceremonial or recreational singing, or, much more rarely, as a solo instrument. Skilled players use the technique of circular breathing to achieve a continuous sound, and also employ techniques for inducing multiple harmonic resonances. Although traditionally the instrument was not widespread around the country - it was only used by Aboriginal groups in the most northerly areas - today it is commonly considered the national instrument, not only of Australian Aborigines but of Australia in general. Famous players include Djalu Gurruwiwi, Mark Atkins and Joe Geia, as well as white virtuoso Charlie McMahon. </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Krill Krill </li></ul><ul><li>The Krill Krill song cycle is a modern musical innovation from eastKimberley. A man named Rover Thomas claims to have discovered the ceremony in 1974 after a woman to whom he was spiritually related was killed after a car accident near Warmun. Thomas claimed to have been visited by her spirit and received the ceremony from her. In addition to the music, Thomas and others, including Hector Jandany and Queenie McKenzie, developed a critically acclaimed style of painting in sync with the development of the ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>Kun-borrk </li></ul><ul><li>Kun-borrk came into being around the Adelaide, Mann and Rose Rivers, distinguished by a didgeridoo introduction followed by the percussion and vocals, which often conclude words (in contrast to many other syllabic styles of Aboriginal singing). </li></ul><ul><li>Wangga </li></ul><ul><li>Wangga came into being near the South Alligator River and is distinguished by an extremely high note to commence the song, accompanied by rhythmic percussion and followed by a sudden shift to a low tone. </li></ul><ul><li>[ </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>A number of Indigenous Australians have achieved mainstream prominence, such as Jimmy Little (popular), Yothu Yindi (rock), Troy Cassar-Daley (country) and NoKTuRNL (rap metal), the Warumpi Band (alternative or world music) Aboriginal music has also had broad exposure through the world music movement and in particular WOMADelaide. </li></ul><ul><li>Torres Strait Islander musicians include Christine Anu (popular) and Seaman Dan. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Australian Aboriginal music continues the earlier traditions and also represents a fusion with contemporary mainstream styles of music, such as rock and country music. The Deadlys provide an illustration of this with rock, country, pop being found among the styles played. Common traditional instrumentation used are the didjeridu and clapsticks being used to give a different feel to the music. </li></ul><ul><li>The movie Wrong Side of the Road and soundtrack (1981) gave broad exposure to the bands Us Mob and No Fixed Address and highlighted Indigenous disadvantage in urban Australia. </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>The latest Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005 snapshot of Australia shows the indigenous population has grown at twice the rate of the overall population since 1996 when the indigenous population stood at 283,000. As at June 2001, the Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated the total resident indigenous population to be 458,520 (2.4% of Australia's total), 90% of whom identified as Aboriginal, 6% Torres Strait Islander and the remaining 4% being of dual Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander parentage. Much of the increase since 1996 can be attributed to higher rates of people identifying themselves as Aborigines and changed definitions of aboriginality. </li></ul><ul><li>The preliminary census of Indigenous estimated resident population of Australia, at 30 June 2006, is 517,200.[33] </li></ul><ul><li>In the 2001 census the Aboriginal population in different states was: </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>* New South Wales - 134,888 </li></ul><ul><li>* Queensland - 125,910 </li></ul><ul><li>* Western Australia - 65,931 </li></ul><ul><li>* Northern Territory - 56,875 </li></ul><ul><li>* Victoria - 27,846 </li></ul><ul><li>* South Australia - 25,544 </li></ul><ul><li>* Tasmania - 17,384 </li></ul><ul><li>* ACT - 3,909 </li></ul><ul><li>* Other Territories - 233 </li></ul><ul><li>While the State with the largest total Aboriginal population is New South Wales, as a percentage this constitutes only 2.1% of the overall population of the State. The Northern Territory has the largest Aboriginal population in percentage terms for a State or Territory, with 28.8%. All the other States and Territories have less than 4% of their total populations identifying as Aboriginal; Victoria has the lowest percentage (0.6%). </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>The Indigenous Australian population is a mostly urbanized demographic, but a substantial number (27%) live in remote settlements often located on the site of former church missions. The health and economic difficulties facing both groups are substantial. Both the remote and urban populations have adverse ratings on a number of social indicators, including health, education, unemployment, poverty and crime. In 2004 former Prime Minister John Howard initiated contracts with Aboriginal communities, where substantial financial benefits are available in return for commitments such as ensuring children attend school. These contracts are known as Shared Responsibility Agreements. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>The &quot;Mutual Obligation&quot; concept was introduced for all Australians in receipt of welfare benefits and who are not disabled or elderly. Notably, just prior to a federal election being called, John Howard in a Speech at the Sydney Institute on October 11 2007 acknowledged some of the failures of the previous policies of his government and said &quot;We must recognize the distinctiveness of Indigenous identity and culture and the right of Indigenous people to preserve that heritage. The crisis of Indigenous social and cultural disintegration requires a stronger affirmation of Indigenous identity and culture as a source of dignity, self-esteem and pride.&quot; </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>The Stolen Generations (also Stolen generation and Stolen children) is a term used to describe those children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals occurred in the period between approximately 1869[3] and 1969,although, in some places, children were still being taken in the 1970s. </li></ul><ul><li>The extent of the removal of children, and the reasoning behind their removal, are contested. Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. Motivations evident include child protection, beliefs that given their catastrophic population decline post white contact that black people would &quot;die out&quot; , fears of miscegenation and a desire to attain white racial purity. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Terms such as &quot;stolen&quot; were used in the context of taking children from their families - the Hon P. McGarry, a member of the Parliament of New South Wales, objected to the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 which enabled the Aborigines' Protection Board to remove Aboriginal children from their parents without having to establish that they were in any way neglected or mistreated; McGarry described the policy as &quot;steal[ing] the child away from its parents&quot;. In 1923, in the Adelaide Sun an article stated &quot;The word 'stole' may sound a bit far-fetched but by the time we have told the story of the heart-broken Aboriginal mother we are sure the word will not be considered out of place.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Australians in most jurisdictions were &quot;protected&quot;, effectively being wards of the State.The protection was done through each jurisdictions' Aboriginal Protection Board, in Victorian and Western Australia these boards were also responsible for applying what were known as Half-caste acts. </li></ul><ul><li>Carmel Middletent </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>More recent usage was Peter Read's 1981 publication of The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969. The 1997 publication of Bringing Them Home - Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. brought broader awareness of the &quot;Stolen Generations.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The acceptance of the term in Australia as illustrated by the 13 February 2008 formal apology to the Stolen Generations, led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, and passed by both houses of the Parliament of Australia. Previously apologies had been offered by State and Territory governments in the period 1997-2001. </li></ul><ul><li>There however remains opposition to acceptance of the validity of the term &quot;Stolen Generations&quot;. This was illustrated by the former Prime Minister John Howard refusing to apologize and the then Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, John Herron controversially disputing the usage in April 2000. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Under Section 41 of the Australian Constitution Aboriginals always had the legal right to vote in Australian Commonwealth elections if their State granted them that right. This meant that all Aborigines outside Queensland and Western Australia had a legal right to vote. Indigenous Australians gained the unqualified right to vote in Federal elections in 1962. It was not until 1967 that they were counted in the population for the purpose of distribution of electoral seats. Only two Indigenous Australians have been elected to the Australian Parliament, Neville Bonner (1971-1983) and Aden Ridgeway (1999-2005). There are currently no Indigenous Australians in the Australian Parliament. </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Students as a group leave school earlier, and live with a lower standard of education, compared with their peers. Although the situation is slowly improving (with significant gains between 1994 and 2002),[37] </li></ul><ul><li>* 39% of indigenous students stayed on to year 12 at high school, compared with 75% for the Australian population as a whole. ABS </li></ul><ul><li>* 22% of indigenous adults had a vocational or higher education qualification, compared with 48% for the Australian population as a whole . ABS </li></ul><ul><li>* 4% of Indigenous Australians held a bachelor degree or higher, compared with 21% for the population as a whole. While this fraction is increasing, it is increasing at a slower rate than that for Australian population as a whole. ABS </li></ul><ul><li>The performance of indigenous students in national literacy and numeracy tests conducted in school years three, five, and seven is also inferior to that of their peers. The following table displays the performance of indigenous students against the general Australian student population as reported in the National Report on Schooling in Australia 2004. </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Indigenous Australians are almost three times more likely to be unemployed (20.0% unemployment) than a non-Indigenous Australian (7.6%). The difference is not solely due to the increased proportion of Indigenous Australians living in rural communities, for unemployment is higher in Indigenous Australian populations living in urban centres (Source: ABS). The average household income for Indigenous Australian populations is 60% of the non-Indigenous average. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Due to lack of access to medical facilities, Indigenous Australians were twice as likely to report their health as fair/poor and one-and-a-half times more likely to have a disability or long-term health condition.(after adjusting for demographic structures). </li></ul><ul><li>Health problems with the highest disparity (compared with the non-Indigenous population) in incidence are outlined in the following table: </li></ul>
  34. 37. Health problem Comparative incidence rate Comments Circulatory system diseases 2 to 10-fold 5 to 10-fold increase in rheumatic heart disease and hypertensive disease , 2-fold increase in other heart disease , 3-fold increase in death from circulatory system disorders. Circulatory system diseases account for 24% deaths Renal failure 2 to 3-fold 2 to 3-fold increase in listing on the dialysis and transplant registry, up to 30-fold increase in end stage renal disease , 8-fold increase in death rates from renal failure , 2.5% of total deaths Communicable diseases 10 to 70-fold 10-fold increase in tuberculosis , Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C virus , 20-fold increase in Chlamydia , 40-fold increase in Shigellosis and Syphilis , 70-fold increase in Gonococcal infections Diabetes 3 to 4-fold 11% incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Indigenous Australians, 3% in non-Indigenous population. 18% of total indigenous deaths Cot death 2 to 3-fold Over the period 1999–2003, in Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, the national cot death rate for infants was three times the rate Mental health 2 to 5-fold 5-fold increase in drug-induced mental disorders , 2-fold increase in diseases such as schizophrenia , 2 to 3-fold increase in suicide. Optometry/Ophthalmology 2-fold A 2-fold increase in cataracts Neoplasms 60% increase in death rate 60% increased death rate from neoplasms . In 1999-2003, neoplasms accounted for 17% of all deaths Respiratory disease 3 to 4-fold 3 to 4-fold increased death rate from respiratory disease accounting for 8% of total deaths
  35. 38. <ul><li>Many Indigenous communities suffer from a range of health and social problems associated with substance abuse of both legal and illegal drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>A large 2004-05 health survey by the ABS found that the proportion of the Indigenous adult population engaged in 'risky' and 'high-risk' alcohol consumption (15%) was comparable with that of the non-Indigenous population (14%), based on age-standardized data. </li></ul><ul><li>To combat the problem, a number of programs to prevent or mitigate against alcohol abuse have been attempted in different regions, many initiated from within the communities themselves. These strategies include such actions as the declaration of &quot;Dry Zones&quot; within indigenous communities, prohibition and restriction on point-of-sale access, and community policing and licensing. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Some communities (particularly in the Northern Territory) introduced kava as a safer alternative to alcohol, as over-indulgence in kava produces sleepiness, in contrast to the violence that can result from over-indulgence in alcohol. These and other measures met with variable success, and while a number of communities have seen decreases in associated social problems caused by excessive drinking, others continue to struggle with the issue and it remains an ongoing concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Petrol sniffing is also a problem among some remote Indigenous communities. Petrol vapor produces euphoria and dulling effect in those who inhale it, and due to its relatively low price and widespread availability, is an increasingly popular substance of abuse. Proposed solutions to the problem are a topic of heated debate among politicians and the community at large.[61][62] In 2005 this problem among remote indigenous communities was considered so serious that a new petrol Opal was distributed across the Northern Territory to combat it. As Opal petrol is less addictive. </li></ul>
  37. 41. <ul><li>Let’s assume that you are part of a team of researchers that are investigating the results of the stolen generation seen today in aboriginal people. Thus, you are required to spend some time with tribes and with aborigines that live in cities. What do you think is the biggest consequence?, what factors contributed to this consequence?, write an essay, from your own point of view explaining the major consequences of this treatment. You can rely on the information provided on this PowerPoint or on other sources. </li></ul>