Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable
scientific methodology to solve problems and create new
knowledge that is generally applicable.
When you say that you are undertaking a research study to
find answers to a question, you are implying that the
1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of
philosophies ( approaches);
2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have
been tested for their validity and reliability;
3. is designed to be unbiased and objective .
• The word research is composed of two syllables, re and
search. re is a prefix meaning again, anew or over again
• search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully,
to test and try, or to probe.
Objectives of research
• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights
into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or
formulative research studies);
• 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group
• (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research
• 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or
with which it is associated with something else (studies with this
object in view are known as diagnostic research studies);
• 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables
(such studies are known as
• hypothesis-testing research studies).
• Market research:
Researching the immediate
of the market place, incl.
Includes the above plus,
companies and strategies
for products and markets,
the wider environment in
which the firm operates.
• Definition: it is the systematic design, collection,
analysis and reporting of data and findings
relevant to a specific marketing situation facing
It reduces uncertainty or error in decision making.
the information collected by conducting
marketing research is used for problem solving
and decision making in various areas of
Marketing research helps the marketing
1. Identify and define marketing problems and
2. Understand markets and customers and
reliable prediction about them
3. Develop marketing strategies
4. Facilitate efficient expenditure of funds
5. Monitor marketing performance.
Applications of MR
• Marketing research activities can be divided into
four main strategic categories:
- identifying and evaluating opportunities
- competitive analysis
- analysing market segments and selecting target
Marketing strategy design
- planning and implementing a marketing mix
Analysing marketing performance
Steps in Research Process:
1. Formulating the Research Problem
2. Extensive Literature Review
3. Developing the objectives
4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design
5. Collecting the Data
6. Analysis of Data
7. Generalisation and Interpretation
8. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of
Results-Formal write ups of conclusions reached.
Data collection Analysis
Formulating a research problem:
It is the first and most crucial step in the research process
- Main function is to decide what you want to find out about.
- The way you formulate a problem determines almost every step that
There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate to states of
nature and those which relate to relationships between variables. At the
very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study
Sources of research problems
Research in social sciences revolves around four Ps:
• People- a group of individuals
• Problems- examine the existence of certain issues or problems
relating to their lives; to ascertain attitude of a group of people
towards an issue
• Programs- to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention
• Phenomena- to establish the existence of a regularity.
The researcher must at the same time examine all available literature
to get himself acquainted with the selected problem. He may
review two types of literature—the conceptual literature
concerning the concepts and theories, and the empirical literature
consisting of studies made earlier
• Steps in formulation of a research problem :
• Working through these steps presupposes a reasonable level of
knowledge in the broad subject area within which the study is to be
undertaken. Without such knowledge it is difficult to clearly and
ade uatel disse t a su je t a ea.
• Step 1 Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you.
• Step 2 Dissect the broad area into sub areas.
• Step 3 Select what is of most interest to you.
• Step 4 Raise research questions.
• Step 5 Formulate objectives.
• Step 6 Assess your objectives.
• Step 7 Double check.
• So far we have focused on the basis of your
study, the research problem. But every study
in social sciences has a second element, the
study population from whom the required
information to find answers to your research
questions is obtained.
• As you narrow the research problem, similarly
you need to decide very specifically who
constitutes your study population, in order to
select the appropriate respondents.
Review of literature:
Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be
written down. At this juncture the researcher should undertake
extensive literature survey connected with the problem. The earlier
studies, if any, which are similar to the study in hand should be
carefully studied. A good library will be a great help to the
researcher at this stage.
• -Reviewing literature can be time-consuming, daunting and
frustrating, but is also
• rewarding. Its functions are:
• a. Bring clarity and focus to your research problem;
• b. Improve your methodology;
• c. Broaden your knowledge;
• d. Contextualise your findings.
• Procedure for reviewing the literature:
i) search for existing literature in your area of study;
ii) review the literature selected;
iii) develop a theoretical framework;
iv) develop a conceptual framework.
Next compile a bibliography for this broad area.
• The formulation of objectives:
Objectives are the goals you set out to attain in
-They inform a reader what you want to attain
through the study.
-It is extremely important to word them clearly
Objectives should be listed under two headings:
a) main objectives ( aims);
. Development of working hypotheses: After extensive
literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms
the working hypothesis or hypotheses. Working
hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to
draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences
• a) Discussions with colleagues and experts about the
problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking a
• (b) Examination of data and records, if available,
concerning the problem for possible trends,
peculiarities and other clues;
• (c) Review of similar studies in the area or of the
studies on similar problems; and
• (d) Exploratory personal investigation
Preparing the research design: The research
problem having been formulated in clear cut
terms, the researcher will be required to prepare
a research design, i.e., he will have to state the
conceptual structure within which research
would be conducted.
• A plan or strategy for conducting the research
• Spells out the basic strategies that researchers
adopt to develop evidence that is accurate and
• Deals with matters such as selecting participants
for the research and preparing for data collection.
The preparation of the research design, appropriate
for a particular research problem, involves usually
the consideration of the following:
(i) the means of obtaining the information;
(ii) the availability and skills of the researcher and
his staff (if any);
(iii) explanation of the way in which selected
means of obtaining information will be organised
and the reasoning leading to the selection;
(iv) the time available for research; and
(v) the cost factor relating to research, i.e., the
finance available for the purpose.
Purposes of Research Design
1. To provide answers to research questions
2. To control variance
Research purposes may be grouped into four
categories, viz., (i) Exploration, (ii) Description,
(iii) Diagnosis, and (iv) Experimentation
There are several research designs, such as,
experimental and non-experimental hypothesis
testing. Experimental designs can be either
informal designs (such as before-and-after
without control, after-only with control, before-
and-after with control) or formal designs (such as
completely randomized design, randomized block
TYPES OF RESEARCH
1. Experimental research – involves manipulating
condition and studying effects – (IPO-Input-
2. Correlational research – involves studying
relationship s among variables within a single
group, and frequently suggests the possibility of
cause and effect.
3. Survey research – involves describing the
characteristics of a group by means of such
instruments as interview schedules,
questionnaires, and tests.
This threefold classification is especially useful for
describing the design with respect to internal
A randomized experiment generally is the
strongest of the three designs when your interest
is in establishing a cause-effect relationship.
A non-experiment is generally the weakest in this
respect only to internal validity or causal
In fact, the simplest form of non-experiment is a
one-shot survey design that consists of nothing
but a single observation O.
The most common forms of research descriptive
Research Types under Quantitative &
• Experimental Research
• Single-Subject Research
• Correlational Research
• Survey Research
• Ethnographic Research
• Historical Research
Data collection methods
Data is the collected information for the research
purposes. Data can be qualified and quantified data.
The data can be collected in two types.
It can be classified into primary data and secondary data.
Primary data can be collected either through experiment
or through survey. If the researcher conducts an
experiment, he observes some quantitative
measurements, or the data, with the help of which he
examines the truth contained in his hypothesis.
• OBSERVATION METHOD:
This method is the most commonly used
methods. This method implies the collection
of i fo atio a of i estigato s o
observation. The information obtained relates
to what is currently happening and is not
complicated by either the past behavior or
future intentions or attitudes of respondents.
It may be of two types:
• If the units to be observed and methods are
defined then its structured observation.
• If the above points are not fulfilled then they
are termed as unstructured observation or
• If the observer observes by making himself
the member of the group he is observing then
it is termed as participant observation
• If the observer observes with out any attempt
to participate in the group then it is termed as
non participant observation.
• If the researcher observes in a manner that his
presence is unknown to the people he is
observing it is termed as disguised
• If the observation takes place in a natural
setting then it is termed as uncontrolled
• If the observation takes place according to pre
arranged plans then it is termed as controlled
observation. Generally controlled
observations take place in controlled
conditions in laboratories.
This method of collecting data involves oral verbal
This method can be of personal interview or telephone
The interview method of collecting data requires oral
verbal responses. This requires a person known as
the interviewer asking questions in a face to face
manner. This is mostly carried out in a structured way
hence called as structured interview.
Unstructured interviews do not require a pre
determined questions and techniques of recording
Focussed interview is meant to focus attention
on the given experience of the respondent
and its effects.
Clinical interview is concerned with broad
feelings and motivations in the real life
experiences of the respondent.
In case of non directive interview the
i te ie e s fu tio is to liste
encouraging the respondent to talk about a
given topic with out or less questions.
This method is quite popular in case of big
enquiries. It is adopted by private individuals,
research workers, organisations including
government organisations. The questionnaire
is sent to the persons with a request to
answer it and return them.
It involves less cost and gives times for
respondents to answer.
This method may be time consuming and less
rate of return of the questionnaires.
Main aspects of a questionnaire:
Question formulation and wording
The size of the questionnaire should be small
Personal questions should be avoided
Questions should be easy
Questions may be multiple choice or open
• Under this method the enumerators are
appointed and given training.
• They are provided with schedules containing
• These enumerators go to respondents with
• Data are collected by filling up the schedules
by enumerators on the basis of replies given
COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data means data that are already available.
Some one else has already collected and analysed
them. When researcher uses secondary data he has
to look for various sources. Secondary data may be
published or unpublished.(تنشر لم أو )نشر
Published data are available in,
Publications of governments
Technical and trade journals
Reports of various associations
Reports of research scholars
Publications of industry bank and other companies
Public records and statistics
Secondary data should have following
Reliability of data
Suitability of data
Adequacy of data
When conducting research, it is almost always
impossible to study the entire population that you
are interested in. when field studies are undertaken
in practical life then it makes us choose a few
The respondents selected should be a representative of
the total population.
The selected respondents are called a sample and the
process is called sampling technique.
What is a sample( ?)عين
A sample is a subset of the population being
studied. It represents the larger population
and is used to draw inferences about that
population. It is a research technique widely
used in the social sciences as a way to gather
information about a population without
having to measure the entire population.
Characteristics of a good sample design:
Sample design should make a truly representative
Errors should be less
Should be systematic and controlled in a better way.
Steps in sample design:
• Type of universe
• Sampling unit
• Source list
• Size of the sample
• Sampling procedure
Probability Sampling Techniques
Probability sampling is a sampling technique
where the samples are gathered in a process
that gives all the individuals in the population
equal chances of being selected.
Also known as random sampling or chance
It is like a lottery method( نصي الي )طريق in which
individuals are picked up from the whole
Random sampling may be
Simple random sampling or complex random
The simple random sample
• The basic sampling method assumed in statistical
methods and computations.
• The main benefit of the simple random sample is
that each member of the population has an equal
chance of being chosen.
• This means that it guarantees that the sample
chosen is representative of the population.
Complex random sampling techniques
The elements of the population are put into a
list and then every kth element in the list is
chosen (systematically) for inclusion in the
For example, if the population of study
contained 2,000 students in a college and the
researcher wanted a sample of 100 students,
the students would be put into list form and
then every 20th student would be selected for
inclusion in the sample.
A stratified sample is a sampling technique in which the
researcher divided the entire target population into different
subgroups, or strata.
Then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the
This type of sampling is used when the researcher wants to
highlight specific subgroups within the population.
For example, to obtain a stratified sample of university students,
the researcher would first organize the population by college
class and then select appropriate numbers of freshers,
juniors, and seniors. This ensures that the researcher has
adequate amounts of subjects from each class in the final
Cluster sampling may be used when it is either impossible or
impractical to compile an exhaustive list of the elements that
make up the target population.
the population elements are already grouped into
subpopulations and lists of those subpopulations already exist
or can be created.
Fo e a ple, let s sa the ta get populatio i a stud as
working people in the United States. There is no list of all in
The researcher could, however, create a list of churches in the
United States, choose a sample of churches, and then obtain
lists of members from those churches.
Non-probability Sampling Techniques
Non-probability sampling is a sampling
technique where the samples are gathered in
a process that does not give all the individuals
in the population equal chances of being
1. Judgement sampling or purposive sampling
2. Quota sampling
Purposive or Judgmental Sample. ( حكمي أو دف )ه
A purposive, or judgmental, sample is one that is selected based
on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the
Quota sampling(الحصص العين :)أخذ
In this the interviewers are given quotas to be filled from various
strata . The selection is left to the interviewers discretion