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Marketing research course material


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Marketing research course material

  3. 3. Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and create new knowledge that is generally applicable. When you say that you are undertaking a research study to find answers to a question, you are implying that the process; 1. is being undertaken within a framework of a set of philosophies ( approaches); 2. uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their validity and reliability; 3. is designed to be unbiased and objective . • The word research is composed of two syllables, re and search. re is a prefix meaning again, anew or over again • search is a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try, or to probe.
  4. 4. Objectives of research • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies); • 2. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group • (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies); • 3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies); • 4. To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as • hypothesis-testing research studies).
  5. 5. Marketing research • Market research: Researching the immediate competitive environment of the market place, incl. customers, suppliers competitors distributors and retailers. Marketing research: Includes the above plus, companies and strategies for products and markets, the wider environment in which the firm operates.
  6. 6. • Definition: it is the systematic design, collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company. • Purpose: It reduces uncertainty or error in decision making. the information collected by conducting marketing research is used for problem solving and decision making in various areas of marketing.
  7. 7. Marketing research helps the marketing manager to 1. Identify and define marketing problems and opportunities 2. Understand markets and customers and reliable prediction about them 3. Develop marketing strategies 4. Facilitate efficient expenditure of funds 5. Monitor marketing performance.
  8. 8. Applications of MR • Marketing research activities can be divided into four main strategic categories: Market analysis - identifying and evaluating opportunities - competitive analysis Market segmentation - analysing market segments and selecting target markets Marketing strategy design - planning and implementing a marketing mix Analysing marketing performance
  9. 9. Marketing research process UNIT II
  10. 10. Steps in Research Process: 1. Formulating the Research Problem 2. Extensive Literature Review 3. Developing the objectives 4. Preparing the Research Design including Sample Design 5. Collecting the Data 6. Analysis of Data 7. Generalisation and Interpretation 8. Preparation of the Report or Presentation of Results-Formal write ups of conclusions reached.
  11. 11. Formulating research problem Literature survey Developing objectives/ hypothesis Research design Data collection Analysis Interpretation and report preparation ff ff f
  12. 12. Formulating a research problem: It is the first and most crucial step in the research process - Main function is to decide what you want to find out about. - The way you formulate a problem determines almost every step that follows. There are two types of research problems, viz., those which relate to states of nature and those which relate to relationships between variables. At the very outset the researcher must single out the problem he wants to study Sources of research problems Research in social sciences revolves around four Ps: • People- a group of individuals • Problems- examine the existence of certain issues or problems relating to their lives; to ascertain attitude of a group of people towards an issue • Programs- to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention • Phenomena- to establish the existence of a regularity.
  13. 13. The researcher must at the same time examine all available literature to get himself acquainted with the selected problem. He may review two types of literature—the conceptual literature concerning the concepts and theories, and the empirical literature consisting of studies made earlier • Steps in formulation of a research problem : • Working through these steps presupposes a reasonable level of knowledge in the broad subject area within which the study is to be undertaken. Without such knowledge it is difficult to clearly and ade uatel disse t a su je t a ea. • Step 1 Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you. • Step 2 Dissect the broad area into sub areas. • Step 3 Select what is of most interest to you. • Step 4 Raise research questions. • Step 5 Formulate objectives. • Step 6 Assess your objectives. • Step 7 Double check.
  14. 14. • So far we have focused on the basis of your study, the research problem. But every study in social sciences has a second element, the study population from whom the required information to find answers to your research questions is obtained. • As you narrow the research problem, similarly you need to decide very specifically who constitutes your study population, in order to select the appropriate respondents.
  15. 15. Review of literature: Once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be written down. At this juncture the researcher should undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. The earlier studies, if any, which are similar to the study in hand should be carefully studied. A good library will be a great help to the researcher at this stage. • -Reviewing literature can be time-consuming, daunting and frustrating, but is also • rewarding. Its functions are: • a. Bring clarity and focus to your research problem; • b. Improve your methodology; • c. Broaden your knowledge; • d. Contextualise your findings.
  16. 16. • Procedure for reviewing the literature: i) search for existing literature in your area of study; ii) review the literature selected; iii) develop a theoretical framework; iv) develop a conceptual framework. Next compile a bibliography for this broad area. Sources are: 1. books 2.journals
  17. 17. • The formulation of objectives: Objectives are the goals you set out to attain in your study. -They inform a reader what you want to attain through the study. -It is extremely important to word them clearly and specifically. Objectives should be listed under two headings: a) main objectives ( aims); b) sub-objectives
  18. 18. . Development of working hypotheses: After extensive literature survey, researcher should state in clear terms the working hypothesis or hypotheses. Working hypothesis is tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences • a) Discussions with colleagues and experts about the problem, its origin and the objectives in seeking a solution; • (b) Examination of data and records, if available, concerning the problem for possible trends, peculiarities and other clues; • (c) Review of similar studies in the area or of the studies on similar problems; and • (d) Exploratory personal investigation
  19. 19. Preparing the research design: The research problem having been formulated in clear cut terms, the researcher will be required to prepare a research design, i.e., he will have to state the conceptual structure within which research would be conducted. • A plan or strategy for conducting the research • Spells out the basic strategies that researchers adopt to develop evidence that is accurate and interpretable. • Deals with matters such as selecting participants for the research and preparing for data collection.
  20. 20. The preparation of the research design, appropriate for a particular research problem, involves usually the consideration of the following: (i) the means of obtaining the information; (ii) the availability and skills of the researcher and his staff (if any); (iii) explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organised and the reasoning leading to the selection; (iv) the time available for research; and (v) the cost factor relating to research, i.e., the finance available for the purpose.
  21. 21. Purposes of Research Design 1. To provide answers to research questions 2. To control variance Research purposes may be grouped into four categories, viz., (i) Exploration, (ii) Description, (iii) Diagnosis, and (iv) Experimentation There are several research designs, such as, experimental and non-experimental hypothesis testing. Experimental designs can be either informal designs (such as before-and-after without control, after-only with control, before- and-after with control) or formal designs (such as completely randomized design, randomized block design
  22. 22. TYPES OF RESEARCH 1. Experimental research – involves manipulating condition and studying effects – (IPO-Input- Process-Output) 2. Correlational research – involves studying relationship s among variables within a single group, and frequently suggests the possibility of cause and effect. 3. Survey research – involves describing the characteristics of a group by means of such instruments as interview schedules, questionnaires, and tests.
  23. 23. This threefold classification is especially useful for describing the design with respect to internal validity. A randomized experiment generally is the strongest of the three designs when your interest is in establishing a cause-effect relationship. A non-experiment is generally the weakest in this respect only to internal validity or causal assessment. In fact, the simplest form of non-experiment is a one-shot survey design that consists of nothing but a single observation O. The most common forms of research descriptive ones
  24. 24. Research Types under Quantitative & Qualitative • Quantitative • Experimental Research • Single-Subject Research • Correlational Research • Causal-Comparative Research • Survey Research • Qualitative • Ethnographic Research • Historical Research
  25. 25. Data collection methods UNIT III
  26. 26. Data collection methods Data is the collected information for the research purposes. Data can be qualified and quantified data. The data can be collected in two types. It can be classified into primary data and secondary data. Primary data can be collected either through experiment or through survey. If the researcher conducts an experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements, or the data, with the help of which he examines the truth contained in his hypothesis.
  27. 27. Data collection methods Primary data interview questionnai res observation Secondary data journals newspapers directories schedules Newsletters/ manuals
  28. 28. • OBSERVATION METHOD: This method is the most commonly used methods. This method implies the collection of i fo atio a of i estigato s o observation. The information obtained relates to what is currently happening and is not complicated by either the past behavior or future intentions or attitudes of respondents. It may be of two types: Structured observation Unstructured observation
  30. 30. • If the units to be observed and methods are defined then its structured observation. • If the above points are not fulfilled then they are termed as unstructured observation or random observation. • If the observer observes by making himself the member of the group he is observing then it is termed as participant observation • If the observer observes with out any attempt to participate in the group then it is termed as non participant observation.
  31. 31. • If the researcher observes in a manner that his presence is unknown to the people he is observing it is termed as disguised observation. • If the observation takes place in a natural setting then it is termed as uncontrolled observation. • If the observation takes place according to pre arranged plans then it is termed as controlled observation. Generally controlled observations take place in controlled conditions in laboratories.
  32. 32. Interview techniques STRUCTURED UN STRUCTURED FOCUSSED clinical NON DIRECTIVE
  33. 33. INTERVIEW TECHNIQUE: This method of collecting data involves oral verbal responses. This method can be of personal interview or telephone interview. Personal interview: The interview method of collecting data requires oral verbal responses. This requires a person known as the interviewer asking questions in a face to face manner. This is mostly carried out in a structured way hence called as structured interview. Unstructured interviews do not require a pre determined questions and techniques of recording information.
  34. 34. Focussed interview is meant to focus attention on the given experience of the respondent and its effects. Clinical interview is concerned with broad feelings and motivations in the real life experiences of the respondent. In case of non directive interview the i te ie e s fu tio is to liste encouraging the respondent to talk about a given topic with out or less questions.
  35. 35. Questionnaires: This method is quite popular in case of big enquiries. It is adopted by private individuals, research workers, organisations including government organisations. The questionnaire is sent to the persons with a request to answer it and return them. It involves less cost and gives times for respondents to answer. This method may be time consuming and less rate of return of the questionnaires.
  36. 36. Main aspects of a questionnaire: General form Question sequence Question formulation and wording The size of the questionnaire should be small Personal questions should be avoided Questions should be easy Questions may be multiple choice or open ended.
  37. 37. Schedules: • Under this method the enumerators are appointed and given training. • They are provided with schedules containing relevant questions. • These enumerators go to respondents with these schedules. • Data are collected by filling up the schedules by enumerators on the basis of replies given by respondents
  38. 38. COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA Secondary data means data that are already available. Some one else has already collected and analysed them. When researcher uses secondary data he has to look for various sources. Secondary data may be published or unpublished.(‫تنشر‬ ‫لم‬ ‫أو‬ ‫)نشر‬ Published data are available in,  Publications of governments  Technical and trade journals  Reports of various associations  Reports of research scholars  Publications of industry bank and other companies  Public records and statistics
  39. 39. Secondary data should have following characteristics  Reliability of data  Suitability of data  Adequacy of data
  40. 40. UNIT IV Sample design and sampling procedure
  41. 41. When conducting research, it is almost always impossible to study the entire population that you are interested in. when field studies are undertaken in practical life then it makes us choose a few respondents.(‫)المستجيبين‬ The respondents selected should be a representative of the total population. The selected respondents are called a sample and the process is called sampling technique.
  42. 42. What is a sample( ‫?)عين‬ A sample is a subset of the population being studied. It represents the larger population and is used to draw inferences about that population. It is a research technique widely used in the social sciences as a way to gather information about a population without having to measure the entire population.
  43. 43. Characteristics of a good sample design:  Sample design should make a truly representative sample  Errors should be less  Should be systematic and controlled in a better way. Steps in sample design: • Type of universe • Sampling unit • Source list • Size of the sample • Budget • Sampling procedure
  45. 45. Probability Sampling Techniques Probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that gives all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected. Also known as random sampling or chance sampling It is like a lottery method( ‫نصي‬ ‫الي‬ ‫)طريق‬ in which individuals are picked up from the whole group.
  46. 46. Random sampling may be Simple random sampling or complex random sampling. The simple random sample • The basic sampling method assumed in statistical methods and computations. • The main benefit of the simple random sample is that each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen. • This means that it guarantees that the sample chosen is representative of the population.
  47. 47. Complex random sampling techniques Systematic sample The elements of the population are put into a list and then every kth element in the list is chosen (systematically) for inclusion in the sample. For example, if the population of study contained 2,000 students in a college and the researcher wanted a sample of 100 students, the students would be put into list form and then every 20th student would be selected for inclusion in the sample.
  48. 48. Stratified Sample.(‫)تراصف‬ A stratified sample is a sampling technique in which the researcher divided the entire target population into different subgroups, or strata. Then randomly selects the final subjects proportionally from the different strata. This type of sampling is used when the researcher wants to highlight specific subgroups within the population. For example, to obtain a stratified sample of university students, the researcher would first organize the population by college class and then select appropriate numbers of freshers, juniors, and seniors. This ensures that the researcher has adequate amounts of subjects from each class in the final sample.
  49. 49. Cluster Sample.(‫)جماعة‬ Cluster sampling may be used when it is either impossible or impractical to compile an exhaustive list of the elements that make up the target population. the population elements are already grouped into subpopulations and lists of those subpopulations already exist or can be created. Fo e a ple, let s sa the ta get populatio i a stud as working people in the United States. There is no list of all in the country. The researcher could, however, create a list of churches in the United States, choose a sample of churches, and then obtain lists of members from those churches.
  50. 50. Non-probability Sampling Techniques Non-probability sampling is a sampling technique where the samples are gathered in a process that does not give all the individuals in the population equal chances of being selected. 1. Judgement sampling or purposive sampling 2. Quota sampling
  51. 51. Purposive or Judgmental Sample. ( ‫حكمي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫دف‬ ‫)ه‬ A purposive, or judgmental, sample is one that is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. Quota sampling(‫الحصص‬ ‫العين‬ ‫:)أخذ‬ In this the interviewers are given quotas to be filled from various strata . The selection is left to the interviewers discretion