All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland areentitled to a free nursery place. Formal primaryeducation begins at approximately 5 years old and lastsfor 7 years. Today, children in Scotland study StandardGrades, or more recently Intermediate qualificationsbetween the ages of 14 and 16. The school leaving age is16, after which students may choose to remain at schooland study for Access, Intermediate or Higher Grade andAdvanced Higher qualifications. There are 15 Scottish universities, some of whichare amongst the oldest in the world. These include theUniversity of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, theUniversity of Aberdeen, the University of Edinburgh, theHeriot-Watt University, and the University of Dundee –many of which are ranked amongst the best in the UK.
University of University of Dundee St AndrewsHeriot-WattUniversity University of Glasgow University of Aberdeen
Scottish literature includes text written inEnglish, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, French, and Latin. Thepoet and songwriter Robert Burns wrote in the Scotslanguage, although much of his writing is also in Englishand in a "light" Scots dialect which is more accessible toa wider audience. Similarly, the writings of Sir WalterScott and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle were internationallysuccessful during the 19th and early 20th Centuries. More recently, author J.K. Rowling has become oneof the most popular authors in the world (and one of thewealthiest) through her Harry Potter series, which shebegan writing from a coffee-shop in Edinburgh. Scottish theatre has for many years played animportant role in Scottish society, from the music hallvariety of Sir Harry Lauder and his contemporaries to themore serious plays put on at the Citizens Theatre inGlasgow and many other theatres throughout Scotland.
Sport is an important element in Scottish culture, withthe country hosting many of its own national sportingcompetitions. It enjoys independent representation at manyinternational sporting events including the FIFA WorldCup, the Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby League WorldCup, the Cricket World Cup and the CommonwealthGames, but not at the Olympic Games where Scottish athletesare part of the Great Britain team. Scotland has its ownnational governing bodies, such as the Scottish FootballAssociation and the Scottish Rugby Union.
Robert Burns Citizens Theatre J.K. RowlingSir Walter Scott Bagpipe Sir Arthur Conan DoyleSir Harry Lauder Bagpipe band
The Royal Standard of Scotland, a banner showing theRoyal Arms of Scotland, is also frequently to beseen, particularly at sporting events involving a Scottishteam. Often called the Lion Rampant (after its chiefheraldic device), it is technically the property of themonarch and its use by anybody else is illegal, althoughthis is almost universally ignored, and never enforced.The unicorn is also used as a heraldic symbol of Scotland.The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, used prior to 1603by the Kings of Scotland, incorporated a lion rampantshield supported by two unicorns. On the Union of theCrowns, the Arms were quartered with those of Englandand Ireland, and one unicorn was replaced by a lion (thesupporters of England).The Honours of Scotland, the Scottish Crown Jewels, aredisplayed in the Crown Room of Edinburgh Castle, fromwhere they are removed only for State Occasions.
Stylised versions of the Crown of Scotland appear uponthe badges of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, those ofthe Scottish Police Forces, the Scottish AmbulanceService and upon Royal Mail premises, vehicles andpillar/wall boxes in Scotland.William Wallace, a national hero and a leader in theScottish Wars of Independence.The thistle, the floral emblem of Scotland, features inmany Scottish symbols and logos, and on UK currency.Heather is also considered to be a symbol of Scotland.St Andrews Day, the 30 November, is the nationalday, although Burns Night tends to be more widelyobserved. Tartan Day is a recent innovation fromCanada. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St.Andrews Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act2007, designating the day to be an official bank holiday
Scotland has no official national anthem. There areseveral candidates, however: Flower of Scotland ispopularly held to be the National Anthem ofScotland, and is played at events such as football andrugby matches involving the Scotland nationalteams, and as of 2010 is used for the Scottish team atthe Commonwealth Games. Other candidates includeScotland the Brave, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Haeand A Mans A Man for A That. Tartan is a specific woven textile pattern that oftensignifies a particular Scottish clan, as featured in a kilt.The kilt is a kilt men, pleated at the back, pierced thefront, the length of the waist to the knees. InScotland, was originally made and traditionally wovenof wool and tartan patterns, being used by warriorsand scouts clans, each clan having its own tartan. Itwas the typical dress of men and boys of the ScottishHighlands of the sixteenth century.
1-Kilt 12-Scottish Royal Lion 4Flag 73- Scottish Flag4-Tartan5-The Honours of 5Scotland6-Stone in EdinburghCastel 2 87-William Wallace8-The unicorn9-The thistle, ScotlandsFloral emblem. 9 6 3
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