Some Historical Milestone

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Some Historical Milestone

  1. 1. QUESTIONS WELCOME
  2. 2. : I N C O M P U T E R A N D I N F O R M AT I O N E T H I C S
  3. 3. What is Compute r Ethics? http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/#DefComEth Computer Ethics : refer to a kind of professional ethics in which computer professionals apply codes of ethics and standards of good practice within their profession.
  4. 4. In most countries of the world, the ―information revolution‖ has altered many aspects of life significantly: commerce, employment, medicine, security, transportation, entertainment, and so on. Consequently, information and communication technology (ICT) has affected —
  5. 5. 1940 1950 1960 21st
  6. 6. An innovative developments in science and philosophy led to the creation of a new branch of ethics that would later be called ―computer ethics‖ or ―information ethics‖. Norbert Wiener a professor of mathematics and engineering at MIT.
  7. 7. Together with colleagues in The world would undergo ―a second industrial revolution‖ — an ―automatic age‖ with ―enormous potential for good and for evil‖ that would generate a staggering number of new ethical challenges and opportunities. While engaged in this war effort, Wiener and colleagues created a new branch of applied science that Wiener named ―cybernetics‖ (from the Greek word for the pilot of a ship). Even while the War was raging, Wiener foresaw enormous social and ethical implications of cybernetics combined with electronic computers.
  8. 8. Cybernetics (1948) In which he described his new branch of applied science and identified some social and ethical implications of electronic computers. ―It has long been clear to me that the modern ultra rapid computing machine was in principle an ideal central nervous system to an apparatus for automatic control; and that its input and output need not be in the form of numbers or diagrams. It might very well be, respectively, the readings of artificial‖
  9. 9. Wiener‘s book included, for example: The Human Use of Human Beings (1950) A book in which he explored a number of ethical issues that computer and information technology would likely generate. 1. An account of the purpose of a human life 2. Four principles of justice 3. A powerful method for doing applied ethics 4. Discussions of the fundamental questions of computer ethics 5. Examples of key computer ethics topics
  10. 10. ―It seemed,‖ Parker said, ―that when people entered the computer center, they left their ethics at the door‖. Donn Parker - Computer scientist In 1968 he published ―Rules of Ethics in Information Processing‖ Headed the development of the first Code of Professional Conduct of the Association for Computing Machinery (eventually adopted by the ACM in 1973).
  11. 11. Joseph Weizenbaum created a computer program that he called ‗ELIZA‘. As an experiment, Weizenbaum used ELIZA to provide “a crude imitation of a Rogerian psychotherapist engaged in an initial interview with a
  12. 12. Some practicing psychiatrists saw ELIZA as evidence that computers soon would be performing automated psychotherapy. Joseph Weizenbaum created a computer program that he called ‗ELIZA‘. Wrote the book Computer Power and Human Reason, which forcefully expressed his ethical concerns. The book, together with his courses at MIT and the many speeches he gave in the 1970s, inspired a number of thinkers and projects in computer ethics
  13. 13. He began to use the term ‗computer ethics‘ to refer to ―ethical problems aggravated, transformed or created by computer technology‖. Walter Maner Teacher in a university course in medical ethics These efforts spurred the study of computer ethics at a number of colleges and universities in the United States. He developed a university computer ethics course and offered a variety of workshops and lectures at conferences across America.
  14. 14. Parker, Weizenbaum and Maner had raised the computer ethics consciousness of a number of American scholars. In addition, several computing-related social and ethical problems had become public issues in America and Europe: computer-enabled crime, disasters from computer failures, invasions of privacy via computer databases, and major law suits regarding software ownership. The time was right for exponential growth in computer ethics.
  15. 15. Parker, Weizenbaum and Maner had raised the computer ethics consciousness of a number of American scholars. In addition, several computing-related social and ethical problems had become public issues in America and Europe: computer-enabled crime, disasters from computer failures, invasions of privacy via computer databases, and major law suits regarding software ownership. The time was right for exponential growth in computer ethics.
  16. 16. • • • • • • New University Courses Research centers Conferences Journals Articles Text Books DIANE MARTIN DONALD GOTTERBARN SIMON ROGERSON KEITH MILLER
  17. 17. Have recently argued that computer ethics will disappear as a branch of applied ethics? Deborah Johnson perspective is that fundamental ethical theories will remain unaffected – that computer ethics issues are simply the same old ethics questions with a new twist – and consequently computer ethics as a distinct branch of applied philosophy will ultimately disappear. Wiener-Maner-Górniak point of view sees computer technology as ethically revolutionary, requiring human beings to reexamine the foundations of ethics and the very definition of a human life.
  18. 18. X Thank You For Listening… By: Romeo T. Navarro Jr. Jonnalyn Barrientos II-BSICTE

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