Intercultural marketing


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Intercultural marketing

  1. 1. Intercultural Marketing Advertising and Culture Lecturer Frédéric LE THEUFF
  2. 2. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Why talk about Intercultural or Cross-cultural Marketing ? </li></ul><ul><li>1- International marketing : American Marketing Thought </li></ul><ul><li>2- World markets : Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>3- Global markets : Global consumer ? </li></ul><ul><li>4- No Global Consumer because of… Culture </li></ul>
  3. 3. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>U.S. Invented Technology </li></ul>Color TVs Audiotape Recorders Videotape Recorders Machine Tools Telephones Semiconductors Computers 7 4% 9 8% 6 4% 8 9% 2 5% 9 9% 3 5% 9 9% 1% 1 0% 0% 4 0% 1 0% 9 0% 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 9 7 0 N O W
  4. 4. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Anthony GIDDENS (British sociologist) </li></ul><ul><li>« Globalization is the reason for the revival of local cultural identities in different parts of the world » </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Definitions of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1952 : Research paper of Kroeber KLUCKHOHN </li></ul><ul><li>164 definitions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Definitions of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Clifford GEERTZ (anthropologist) </li></ul><ul><li>« Culture is a set of control mechanisms, plans, recipes, rules, instructions, for the governing of behavior » </li></ul><ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE (sociologist) </li></ul><ul><li>« The collective mental programming of the people in an environnement. Culture is not a characteristic of individuals; it encompasses a number of people who were conditioned by the same education and life experience » </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Essentials elements of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1- Language </li></ul><ul><li>2- Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>3- Material productions </li></ul><ul><li>4- Symbolic productions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Dimensions of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Two « Fathers » of cultural dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul>
  9. 9. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3 variables of Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1- High-context and Low-context cultures </li></ul><ul><li>2- Dimensions of time </li></ul><ul><li>3- Relationship of Man with Nature and Space </li></ul>
  10. 10. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>1- High-context and Low-context cultures </li></ul><ul><li>* High-context : message is part of the context </li></ul><ul><li>* Low-context : messages are explicit, direct and unambiguous </li></ul>
  11. 11. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>2- Dimensions of time </li></ul><ul><li>* Time orientation toward the Past, Present, or Future </li></ul><ul><li>* Time is linear or circular </li></ul><ul><li>* Monochronic and polychronic time </li></ul>
  12. 12. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Edward HALL </li></ul><ul><li>3- Relationship of man with Nature and Space </li></ul><ul><li>* Mastery, Harmony, Subjugation to nature </li></ul><ul><li>* Proxemic : Intimity, Personnal or Social areas </li></ul>
  13. 13. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul><ul><li>Five dimensions of National Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1- Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>2- Individualism/collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>3- Masculinity/Feminity </li></ul><ul><li>4- Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>5- Long/Short term orientation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul><ul><li>Five dimensions of National Culture </li></ul><ul><li>1- Power distance </li></ul><ul><li>PDI can be defined as « the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally » </li></ul>
  15. 15. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul><ul><li>Five dimensions of National Culture </li></ul><ul><li>2- Individualism/collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>IDV can be defined as « people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty » </li></ul>
  16. 16. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul><ul><li>Five dimensions of National Culture </li></ul><ul><li>3- Masculinity/Feminity </li></ul><ul><li>MAS can be defined as follows: « The dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life » </li></ul>
  17. 17. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul><ul><li>Five dimensions of National Culture </li></ul><ul><li>4- Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>UAI can be defined as « the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations » </li></ul>
  18. 18. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Geert HOFSTEDE </li></ul><ul><li>Five dimensions of National Culture </li></ul><ul><li>5- Long/Short term orientation </li></ul><ul><li>LTO is « the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future oriented perspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view » </li></ul>
  19. 21. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Consequences for Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>1- Power Distance </li></ul><ul><li>* Large Power Distance : Status symbols, the elder advises the younger </li></ul><ul><li>* Small Power Distance : the daughter advises the mother (younger advises elder) </li></ul>
  20. 22. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Consequences for Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>2- Individualism/collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>* Individualistic cultures : </li></ul><ul><li>- frequent use of « You, We, I » </li></ul><ul><li>- « Treat yourself right » </li></ul><ul><li>* Collectivistic cultures : </li></ul><ul><li>showing people as part of groups </li></ul><ul><li>- being alone means you have no friends </li></ul>
  21. 23. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Consequences for Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>3- Masculinity/Feminity </li></ul><ul><li>* Masculinity : strong need to win, to be succesful, wish to dominate </li></ul><ul><li>« Being the first », « Be the best » </li></ul><ul><li>* Feminity : caring, softness, understatement </li></ul><ul><li>« True refinement comes from within » VOLVO ads </li></ul>
  22. 24. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Consequences for Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>4- Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>* Strong Uncertainty avoidance : need for explanations, structure, testing, scientific proof </li></ul><ul><li>« The best in the test » or «Test winner » </li></ul><ul><li>* Low Uncertainty avoidance : result is more important </li></ul>
  23. 25. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Consequences for Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>5- Long/Short term orientation </li></ul><ul><li>* Long term orientation : </li></ul><ul><li>- values are « Save for tomorrow » </li></ul><ul><li>- symbols are thick trees, explicit referral to future generation </li></ul><ul><li>*Short term orientation : </li></ul><ul><li>Urgency, living in the now and not thinking about future </li></ul>
  24. 26. Intercultural Marketing <ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><li>« Brand USA – Selling Uncle Sam like Uncle Ben’s » </li></ul>