Intercultural negotiation


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Intercultural Negotiation

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Intercultural negotiation

  1. 1. NEGOTIATIONProblem Solving – Conflict Resolution
  2. 2. Negosiasi• Fisher & Ully Negosiasi sama dengan “integrative bargaining”.• Negosiasi adalah “win-win negotiation where both or all parties involved can end up with equally beneficial or attractive outcomes.”• Definisi ini lebih mengacu pada pendekatan problem solving
  3. 3. Negosiasi• Pruit “A process through which agreement may be reached on matters of mutual interest, is essentially the art of persuasion.”• Hasil dari negosiasi ini yang kemudian oleh Pruitt dipilah dalam tiga kategori, integrative agreement, distributive agreement, dan no agreement.
  4. 4. Karakteristik Negosiasi• Karakter Negosiasi – Open information flow between the parties – A search for a solution – Parties understand – To achieve the above• Lax dan Sebenius (1986) menyatakan bahwa negosiasi merupakan “a process of potentially opportunistic interaction by which two or more parties, with some apparent conflict, seek to do better through jointly decided action than they could otherwise
  5. 5. Culture, and So What?« Globalization is the reason for the revival of  local cultural identities in different parts of the  world » Anthony GIDDENS (British sociologist)
  6. 6. Variables of Culture 1. High-context and Low-context cultures High-context : message is part of the context Low-context : messages are explicit, direct and unambiguous 2. Dimensions of time Time orientation toward the Past, Present, or Future Time is linear or circular Monochronic and polychronic time 3. Relationship of Man with Nature and Space Mastery, Harmony, Subjugation to nature Proxemic : Intimity, Personnal or Social areas Edward HALL
  7. 7. CULTUREHofstede (sociologist)Collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from anotherClifford GEERTZ (anthropologist)Culture is a set of control mechanisms, plans, recipes, rules, instructions, for the governing of behavior 
  8. 8. Dimensi Budaya Hofstede :  Power Distance  the extent to which less powerful  members of a society accept and  expect that power is distributed  unequally  Uncertainty Avoidance  the extent to which people feel  threatened by uncertainty and  ambiguity and try to avoid these  situations
  9. 9. Dimensi Budaya Hofstede :  Individualitas vs kolektivitas People looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty  Maskulinitas vs femininitas The dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life
  10. 10. The Consequences1. Power Distance – Large Power Distance : Status symbols, the elder advises the younger• Small Power Distance : the younger advises elder2. Individualism/collectivism – Individualistic cultures : • frequent use of « You, We, I » • « Treat yourself right » – Collectivistic cultures : • showing people as part of groups • being alone means you have no friends
  11. 11. The Consequences3. Masculinity/Feminity – Masculinity : • Strong need to win, to be succesful, wish to dominate • Being the first », « Be the best » – Feminity : • Caring, softness, understatement • True refinement comes from within4. Uncertainty avoidance• Strong Uncertainty avoidance – Need for explanations, structure, testing, scientific proof – « The best in the test » or «Test winner »• Low Uncertainty avoidance : – result is more important
  12. 12. Dimensi Budaya – Negosiasi Internasional1. Semakin besar jenjang power distance antara kedua pihak yang melakukan negoasiasi, akan semakin besar pula kemungkinan kontrol yang lebih terpusat2. Nilai kolektivitas yang tinggi, negosiasi dilakukan dengan cara yang lebih akrab dan bersifat kekeluargaan3. Dalam budaya yang maskulinitas, kekuatan menjadi titik tumpu, sedangkan pada budaya feminis, nilai simpati menjadi faktor perhatian4. Negosiator yang berasal dari pihak yang uncertainty avoidancenya rendah lebih suka menghindari budaya yang terstruktur dan ritual negosiasi yang prosedural
  13. 13. Dimensi Budaya Patrick Collins dalam buku Negotiate To Win : • Collectivistic vs Individualistic • Direct vs Indirect • Perception of time • Approach to conflict management
  14. 14. Relationship between cultural dimension and negotiation Taktik/strategi Melihat proses integrasi dan distribusi dengan asumsitujuan awal dari para negosiator adalah membentuk pilihanstrategis Mencirikan suatu proses negosiasi adalah denganmemperhatikan strategi integratif ataupun distributif Melihat negosiasi sebagai suatu proses evolusi
  15. 15. “A side from the usul markers of one’s culture – such elements as history, language, music, dress, cuisine- the wayyou interact with others also defines and characterizes your culture. In crosscultural negotiation, an understanding of the difference you Encounter in interpersonal behaviors is essential to success. (Patrick Collins – Negotiate To Win!)